Weather

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Ch 1,2,3 Test review

Name the four atmospheric layers (from lowest to highest) that are distinguished by their temperature profiles.

troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere

The _________ of any substance is the amount of mass of the substance contained in a unit of volume.

density

Temperatures generally decrease with height in the

troposphere

temperatures increase with height in the

stratosphere

The aurora borealis and aurora australis (northern and southern lights) are caused by the interaction between charged particles and Earth's magnetic field. Which layer of Earth's atmosphere contains these particles?

ionosphere

Why is ozone primarily important in the troposphere?

It is a pollutant, affecting vegetation and respiration.

The process of ________ removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

photosynthesis

The highest temperatures are typically found in the

thermosphere

The predominant gases in Earth's earliest atmosphere probably were

hydrogen and helium

heterosphere?

It is populated primarily by variable gases.

Fairly narrow boundary zones separating relatively warm and cold air are referred to as

fronts

Atmospheric pressure is routinely plotted on maps by the use of lines called

isobars

Which part of the atmosphere shields Earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation?

stratosphere

The gases spewed out during volcanic events are predominantly

water vapor and carbon dioxide

It is generally believed that Earth was formed how many years ago?

4.5 billion

Which atmospheric layer contains the ozone layer?

troposphere

Situations where temperature increases with height are known as

inversions

Small solid particles and liquid droplets in the air are collectively known as

aerosols

In which atmospheric layer is air density the greatest?

troposphere

Since the 1950s, the concentration of carbon dioxide has increased at a rate of about ?

1.8

Which three gases constitute most of the gas (over 98%) in the atmosphere near Earth's surface?

nitrogen,argon, oxygen

The proper order from shortest to longest wavelength is

ultraviolet, visible, infrared

How do red and blue light differ?

red is a longer wavelength

Electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 0.4 and 0.7 micrometers is called

visible light

The sun emits its greatest intensity of radiation in the _________ portion of the spectrum

visible

The source of energy for nearly all atmospheric processes is

sun

Why is summer a warmer season than winter?

Earth tilts toward the Sun during summer.

The luminous surface of the sun is known as the ?

photosphere

If the temperature of an object increases, what will the radiation emitted by it do?

increase and shift toward dominantly shorter wavelengths

What are the three means by which energy is transferred in the atmosphere?

convection, radiation, and conduction

Most of the energy transfer from the sun to Earth is a result of?

radiation

Each hemisphere receives its strongest solar energy in?

summer solstice

Each hemisphere receives its weakest solar energy in?

winter solstice

The transfer of heat by the mixing of a fluid is called

convection

Kinetic energy is known as

energy of motion

Which latitude would experience the fewest hours of daylight on Dec. 21?

60 n

The astronomical beginning of spring occurs around this date in the Northern Hemisphere

March 21st

At noon on June 21, the sun will be directly overhead at

the tropic of cancer

Between Christmas and Valentine's Day in the Northern Hemisphere, the length of daylight

increases

at which temperature would the earth be radiating energy at the greatest rate or intensity?

98f

Energy transferred by electromagnetic waves is called

radiation

At a given point on Earth, beam depletion will be greatest at

sunset

The sky is blue due to

Rayleigh scattering by air molecules

About _________ of the incoming solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere actually reaches Earth's surface

50

_______ convection is driven by wind.

forced

Most of the terrestrial radiation emitted by the surface of Earth

is absorbed by the atmosphere

The Earth's ocean currents are produced by

wind

When comparing water bodies to land, water bodies

cools more slowly

The percentage of visible light reflected from an object is that object's

albedo

Most of the radiant energy emitted by Earth is in the form of

longwave radiation

The buoyant rising of heat is referred to as

free convection

The difference between absorbed and emitted radiation is called

net radiation

Red sunsets are mainly the result of

scattering

If air molecules selectively scattered only the longest wavelengths of visible light, the color of the sky would be

red

The amount of energy needed to produce a given temperature change per unit mass of the substance is known as

specific heat

The energy required to change the phase of a substance is known as

latent heat

what is the effect of an inland location that favors greater temperature extremes

continentality

Thermodynamic diagrams (such as the Stuve) depict the vertical profiles of temperature and _________ with height above the surface.

humidity

Another name for solar radiation is

insolation

When light strikes a mirror, it is reflected back as a beam of equal intensity in a manner known as

specular reflection

Diffuse reflection is actually a form of

scattering

Because of the absence of preference for any particular wavelength, scattering by clouds is sometimes called

nonselective radiation

Net radiation is the end result of the absorption of insolation and the absorption and radiation of longwave radiation. The surface has a net radiation surplus of ____ units.

29

The figure representing January-July Temperature Differences reveals that the difference between the two months is approximately _____ at the equator.

3° C

According to the figure of January-July Temperature Differences, the region under the greatest influence of continentality has a difference of _____ between the two months.

60° C

According to the Stuve diagram, the temperature and dew-point initially coincide at approximately _____ mb of pressure.

800

The Stuve diagram reveals that the temperature at 400 mb is approximately

-20

At which temperature would the earth be radiating energy at the greatest rate or intensity?

90

The peak wavelength of energy emitted by the Sun is about 0.5 microns. According to Wien's Law, the temperature of the Sun's surface should be

5,800 Kelvins

Which latitude below would experience the fewest hours of daylight on Dec. 22?

60n

According to the Stefan-Boltzmann Law, if the absolute temperature of an object doubles, the maximum energy emitted goes up by a factor of

16

hydrosphere

all water

lithosphere

all solid/rock earth

atmosphere

mixture of gas molecules microscopical small suspended particles of solid and liquid and falling precipitation

Meteorology

study of the atmosphere and "weather"

physical geography

the spatial analysis of all the physical elements and processes that make up the environment

variable gases

distribution in the atmosphere varies in both time and space

water vapor

most abundant variable gases (5km, 3 miles of atmosphere)

hydrologic cycle

water constantly cycled between the planet and the atmosphere ..water eventually condenses to form liquid droplets and ice crystals

steady state

gas concentration remains constant

residence time

length of time that individual molecules of a given substance remain in the atmosphere

amounts of nitrogen and oxygen?

nitrogen 78% oxygen 21%

homosphere

up to 50 miles of earths surface (same)

heterosphere

layered by weight and become increasingly dominant with increasing altitude

Condensation nuclei

all cloud droplets that form in nature do so on suspended aerosois

structure

layering of the atmosphere

tropopause

marks the level at which temp ceases to decrease with height

what is the result of ultraviolet radiation being absorbed by ozone

heat

ozone

form of oxygen in which three O atams are joined to form a single molecule and is essential to life on earth because it absorbs lethal ultraviolet radiation from the sun

mesosphere

extends to a height of about (80km) 50 mi and temp in the mesosphere decreases with altitude

atmospheric pressure

air tends to blow from high pressure towards areas of lower pressure

station models

information on wind speed and direction

dew point temp

higher the dew point, the greater the amount of water vapor in the air

energy

ability to do work

power

the rate at which energy is released, transferred, or received

potential energy

energy that a body possesses by virtue of its position with respect to other bodies in the field of gravity

heat

transfer from one object to another due to differences in temp

conduction

transfer of energy from molecule to molecule

convection

transfer of energy by the movement of fluid

all objects with temp above absolute 0

emit radiation

mean temp of sun surface

6000 c

mean temp of the earth

15c

solar constant

rate at witch solar energy is received on a surface at the outer edge of the atmosphere

epic plane

earth orbits the sun once every 365 days

rotation

occurs every 24 hrs around an imaginary line called earths axis

polaris

axis always tilts same direction

subsolar point

where the sun rays meets the surface at a right angle and the sun appears directly overhead

tropic of capicorn

december solstice

beam spreading

the increase in the surface area over which radiation is distributed in response to a decrease of solar angle.

royg biv

royg long...biv short wavelength

mie scattering

microscopic aerosol particles are considerably larger than air molecule and scatter longer wavelengths. exampe...seasalt and ash

sunrise and sunset appear red because

sunlight travels through aerosols and larger particulates that have settled near the surface

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