Name the four atmospheric layers (from lowest to highest) that are distinguished by their temperature profiles.
troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere
The _________ of any substance is the amount of mass of the substance contained in a unit of volume.
Temperatures generally decrease with height in the
temperatures increase with height in the
The aurora borealis and aurora australis (northern and southern lights) are caused by the interaction between charged particles and Earth's magnetic field. Which layer of Earth's atmosphere contains these particles?
Why is ozone primarily important in the troposphere?
It is a pollutant, affecting vegetation and respiration.
The process of ________ removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
The highest temperatures are typically found in the
The predominant gases in Earth's earliest atmosphere probably were
hydrogen and helium
It is populated primarily by variable gases.
Fairly narrow boundary zones separating relatively warm and cold air are referred to as
Atmospheric pressure is routinely plotted on maps by the use of lines called
Which part of the atmosphere shields Earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation?
The gases spewed out during volcanic events are predominantly
water vapor and carbon dioxide
It is generally believed that Earth was formed how many years ago?
Which atmospheric layer contains the ozone layer?
Situations where temperature increases with height are known as
Small solid particles and liquid droplets in the air are collectively known as
In which atmospheric layer is air density the greatest?
Since the 1950s, the concentration of carbon dioxide has increased at a rate of about ?
Which three gases constitute most of the gas (over 98%) in the atmosphere near Earth's surface?
The proper order from shortest to longest wavelength is
ultraviolet, visible, infrared
How do red and blue light differ?
red is a longer wavelength
Electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 0.4 and 0.7 micrometers is called
The sun emits its greatest intensity of radiation in the _________ portion of the spectrum
The source of energy for nearly all atmospheric processes is
Why is summer a warmer season than winter?
Earth tilts toward the Sun during summer.
The luminous surface of the sun is known as the ?
If the temperature of an object increases, what will the radiation emitted by it do?
increase and shift toward dominantly shorter wavelengths
What are the three means by which energy is transferred in the atmosphere?
convection, radiation, and conduction
Most of the energy transfer from the sun to Earth is a result of?
Each hemisphere receives its strongest solar energy in?
Each hemisphere receives its weakest solar energy in?
The transfer of heat by the mixing of a fluid is called
Kinetic energy is known as
energy of motion
Which latitude would experience the fewest hours of daylight on Dec. 21?
The astronomical beginning of spring occurs around this date in the Northern Hemisphere
At noon on June 21, the sun will be directly overhead at
the tropic of cancer
Between Christmas and Valentine's Day in the Northern Hemisphere, the length of daylight
at which temperature would the earth be radiating energy at the greatest rate or intensity?
Energy transferred by electromagnetic waves is called
At a given point on Earth, beam depletion will be greatest at
The sky is blue due to
Rayleigh scattering by air molecules
About _________ of the incoming solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere actually reaches Earth's surface
_______ convection is driven by wind.
Most of the terrestrial radiation emitted by the surface of Earth
is absorbed by the atmosphere
The Earth's ocean currents are produced by
When comparing water bodies to land, water bodies
cools more slowly
The percentage of visible light reflected from an object is that object's
Most of the radiant energy emitted by Earth is in the form of
The buoyant rising of heat is referred to as
The difference between absorbed and emitted radiation is called
Red sunsets are mainly the result of
If air molecules selectively scattered only the longest wavelengths of visible light, the color of the sky would be
The amount of energy needed to produce a given temperature change per unit mass of the substance is known as
The energy required to change the phase of a substance is known as
what is the effect of an inland location that favors greater temperature extremes
Thermodynamic diagrams (such as the Stuve) depict the vertical profiles of temperature and _________ with height above the surface.
Another name for solar radiation is
When light strikes a mirror, it is reflected back as a beam of equal intensity in a manner known as
Diffuse reflection is actually a form of
Because of the absence of preference for any particular wavelength, scattering by clouds is sometimes called
Net radiation is the end result of the absorption of insolation and the absorption and radiation of longwave radiation. The surface has a net radiation surplus of ____ units.
The figure representing January-July Temperature Differences reveals that the difference between the two months is approximately _____ at the equator.
According to the figure of January-July Temperature Differences, the region under the greatest influence of continentality has a difference of _____ between the two months.
According to the Stuve diagram, the temperature and dew-point initially coincide at approximately _____ mb of pressure.
The Stuve diagram reveals that the temperature at 400 mb is approximately
At which temperature would the earth be radiating energy at the greatest rate or intensity?
The peak wavelength of energy emitted by the Sun is about 0.5 microns. According to Wien's Law, the temperature of the Sun's surface should be
Which latitude below would experience the fewest hours of daylight on Dec. 22?
According to the Stefan-Boltzmann Law, if the absolute temperature of an object doubles, the maximum energy emitted goes up by a factor of
all solid/rock earth
mixture of gas molecules microscopical small suspended particles of solid and liquid and falling precipitation
study of the atmosphere and "weather"
the spatial analysis of all the physical elements and processes that make up the environment
distribution in the atmosphere varies in both time and space
most abundant variable gases (5km, 3 miles of atmosphere)
water constantly cycled between the planet and the atmosphere ..water eventually condenses to form liquid droplets and ice crystals
gas concentration remains constant
length of time that individual molecules of a given substance remain in the atmosphere
amounts of nitrogen and oxygen?
nitrogen 78% oxygen 21%
up to 50 miles of earths surface (same)
layered by weight and become increasingly dominant with increasing altitude
all cloud droplets that form in nature do so on suspended aerosois
layering of the atmosphere
marks the level at which temp ceases to decrease with height
what is the result of ultraviolet radiation being absorbed by ozone
form of oxygen in which three O atams are joined to form a single molecule and is essential to life on earth because it absorbs lethal ultraviolet radiation from the sun
extends to a height of about (80km) 50 mi and temp in the mesosphere decreases with altitude
air tends to blow from high pressure towards areas of lower pressure
information on wind speed and direction
dew point temp
higher the dew point, the greater the amount of water vapor in the air
ability to do work
the rate at which energy is released, transferred, or received
energy that a body possesses by virtue of its position with respect to other bodies in the field of gravity
transfer from one object to another due to differences in temp
transfer of energy from molecule to molecule
transfer of energy by the movement of fluid
all objects with temp above absolute 0
mean temp of sun surface
mean temp of the earth
rate at witch solar energy is received on a surface at the outer edge of the atmosphere
earth orbits the sun once every 365 days
occurs every 24 hrs around an imaginary line called earths axis
axis always tilts same direction
where the sun rays meets the surface at a right angle and the sun appears directly overhead
tropic of capicorn
the increase in the surface area over which radiation is distributed in response to a decrease of solar angle.
royg long...biv short wavelength
microscopic aerosol particles are considerably larger than air molecule and scatter longer wavelengths. exampe...seasalt and ash
sunrise and sunset appear red because
sunlight travels through aerosols and larger particulates that have settled near the surface