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Cell Cycle

Cycle in which cell grows, prepares for division, divides to form two cells

Prokaryotic Cell Cycle

Most of these cells begin to replicate chromosomes once they have grown to size; when replication is complete, division begins through binary fission

Binary Fission

Asexual reproduction; once chromosome has been replicated, two DNA molecules attach to diffferent regions of cell membrane; network of fibers form between them, pinch cell inward, dividing cytoplasm and chromosomes into to new cells

Eukaryotic Cell Cycle

G1, S, G2, M phases

Interphase

Period between eukaryotic divsion; divided into G1, S, and G2

G1 Phase

Cell grows during this phase; increase in size and synthesize new proteins/organelles

S Phase

DNA replication; new copy of DNA is synthesized, so cell contains twice as much DNA at end of S phase

G2 Phase

Organelles and molecules required for cell division are produced; when completed, cell is ready for M Phase

M Phase

Cell division; includes mitosis and then cytokinesis

Mitosis

Chromosome divison; prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

Prophase

Genetic material inside nucleus condenses and duplicated chromosomes become visible; outside nucleus, spindle begins to form; nucleolus disappears, nuclear envelope breaks down

Centromere

Area along length of DNA where duplicated strands are attached

Chromatid

Each DNA strand in duplicated chromosomes is referred to as chromatid; chromatids separate during mitosis

Spindle

Fibers that extend from centrosome (of two centrioles); centrioles start to move towards poles of cell

Metaphase

Centromeres of duplicated chromosomes line up across center of cell; spindle fibers connect centromere of each chromosome to two poles of spindle

Anaphase

Begins when sister chromatids split up and move apart; continues as they move along spindle fibers to opposite ends of cell

Telophase

Chromosomes, before distinct and condense, begin to spread out into tangle of chromatin; nuclear envelope reforms against cluster of chromosomes; spindle breaks apart, nucleolus form; mitosis is complete

Cytokinesis

Division of cytoplasm; in animals, cell membrane is drawn inward until cytoplasm is pinched into two nearly equal parts; in plant cells, cell plate forms halfway between divided nuclei, gradually developing into cell membrane and then cell wall

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