5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Allosteric Regulation
- Primary active transport
- Glycosaminoglycans (GAG's)
- R Group
This is the group which varies in proteins and can be any of twenty amino acids, the polarity of this Group dictates how a protein will behave in certain pH conditions. This explains why enzymes require a certain pH to function.
Organelles that are plentiful in liver cells and adipocytes, responsible for breaking down fatty acids and amino acids in to hydrogen peroxide (among other things) via the action of an enzyme known as catalayse.
The form of enzyme regulation brought about when an effector molecule binds to an enzyme at it's allosteric site, thus bringing about changes in it's conformation and therefor effecting it's ability to function. This form of regulation is immediately effective and also immediately reversible.
Also known as mucopolysaccharides these are long unbranched polysaccharides consisting of a repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating unit consists of a hexose (six-carbon sugar) or a hexuronic acid, linked to a hexosamine (six-carbon sugar containing nitrogen). These are the major component of the 'gel' found in the extracellular matrix of tissue. They are negatively charged and thus attract ions, especially sodium which aids diffusion of water in to the tissue, giving tissue it's compression resistance.
This type of transport is also called direct active transport, directly uses energy to transport molecules across a membrane.
Most of the enzymes that perform this type of transport are transmembrane ATPases. A primary ATPase universal to all cellular life is the sodium-potassium pump, which helps to maintain the cell potential. Other sources of energy for Primary active transport are redox energy and photon energy (light). An example of primary active transport using Redox energy is the mitochondrial electron transport chain that uses the reduction energy of NADH to move protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane against their concentration gradient. An example of primary active transport using light energy are the proteins involved in photosynthesis that use the energy of photons to create a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane and also to create reduction power in the form of NADPH.
5 Multiple choice questions
- Amino acids which are non polar and are repelled by water example are Alanine, Valine, Leucine, Isoleucine, Proline, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Tryptophan and Cystine. Hydrophbicity is also affected by pH levels in some cases.
Cell organelle responsible for attachment of receptors on cell membrane proteins, synthesizing lipids and steroids, metabolizing carbohydrates and steroids (but not lipids) and regulating calcium concentration and drug metabolism.
- A type of metabolism that results in the formation and creation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or guanosine triphosphate (GTP) by the direct transfer and donation of a phosphoryl (PO3) group to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or guanosine diphosphate (GDP) from a phosphorylated reactive intermediate. By convention, the phosphoryl group that is transferred is referred to as a phosphate group.
- Glucose transporter type 4, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GLUT4 gene. It is the insulin-regulated glucose transporter found in adipose tissues and striated muscle (skeletal and cardiac) that is responsible for insulin-regulated glucose translocation into the cell. This protein is expressed primarily in muscle and fat cells, the major tissues in the body that respond to insulinThe specific membrane transporter protein upregulated by insulin when glucose is in high concentrations in the blood.
A specific enzyme which catalyses the transfer of NH₂ from amino acids to α-Ketoglutarate of the TCA cycle (forming glutamate which can also be used for protein synthesis) during the break down of amino acids derived from proteins, in carnivorous animals or in other animals at times of low availability of glucose or TAGs for energy production. Their are specific versions of this enzyme for each of the two acidic amino acids.
5 True/False questions
The point on a hyperbolic plot/during an enzyme assay at which the maximum rate of substrate to product conversion is reached and the line begins to level out. This is often used to indicate the maximum rate of enzyme activity, however it is only approximate as the plot line never completely levels out.
Hydrophillic residues/amino acid → Amino acids which are polar and are attracted to water examples are Glutamine, Serine,Theronine, Histodine, Lysine. Hydrophbicity is also affected by pH levels in some cases.
Signal recognition particle → Also called SRP, this is an abundant, cytosolic, universally conserved ribonucleoprotein (protein-RNA complex) that recognizes and targets specific proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum in eukaryotes and the plasma membrane in prokaryotes.
Malate → Glucose transporter type 4, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GLUT4 gene. It is the insulin-regulated glucose transporter found in adipose tissues and striated muscle (skeletal and cardiac) that is responsible for insulin-regulated glucose translocation into the cell. This protein is expressed primarily in muscle and fat cells, the major tissues in the body that respond to insulinThe specific membrane transporter protein upregulated by insulin when glucose is in high concentrations in the blood.
This compound is one of the naturally occurring proteinogenic amino acids. Its codons are UCU, UCC, UCA, UCG, AGU and AGC. Only the L-stereoisomer appears naturally in proteins. It is not essential to the human diet, since it is synthesized in the body from other metabolites, including glycine. It was first obtained from silk protein, a particularly rich source, in 1865. Its name is derived from the Latin for silk, sericum.