5 Written Questions
5 Matching Questions
- Spherical Micelle
- Cell Wall
- Nascent Chain
- Extracellular Matrix
Latin for little caves, singular: caveola, which are a special type of lipid raft, are small (50-100 nanometer) invaginations of the plasma membrane in many vertebrate cell types, especially in endothelial cells and adipocytes.These flask-shaped structures are rich in proteins as well as lipids such as cholesterol and sphingolipids and have several functions in signal transduction.They are also believed to play a role in endocytosis, oncogenesis, and the uptake of pathogenic bacteria and certain viruses.They are one source of clathrin-independent endocytosis involved in turnover of adhesive complexes.
An extracellular structure in plants which is rigid and surrounds the cell membrane giving it shape and support, like playtex for plants lol! It is primarily composed of cellulose which is a polysaccharide.
This matrix is secreted by cells and laid down externally and it's properties vary enormously depending on it's chemical composition and which tissue is being examined. In some cells it acts as cement or scaffolding. In plants it can be associated with individual cells.
The most stable structure for an aggregate of single tailed amphipathic liquid molecules e.g detergent in water.
- e The name given to a growing polypeptide chain. Literally translated this word means beginning to exist or develop.
5 Multiple Choice Questions
Organelles that are plentiful in liver cells and adipocytes, responsible for breaking down fatty acids and amino acids in to hydrogen peroxide (among other things) via the action of an enzyme known as catalayse.
- Amino acids which are non polar and are repelled by water example are Alanine, Valine, Leucine, Isoleucine, Proline, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Tryptophan and Cystine. Hydrophbicity is also affected by pH levels in some cases.
An optical technique capable of quantifying the two dimensional lateral diffusion of a molecularly thin film containing fluorescently labeled probes, or to examine single cells. This technique is very useful in biological studies of cell membrane diffusion and protein binding. In addition, surface deposition of a fluorescing phospholipid bilayer (or monolayer) allows the characterization of hydrophilic (or hydrophobic) surfaces in terms of surface structure and free energy. Similar, though less well known, techniques have been developed to investigate the 3-dimensional diffusion and binding of molecules inside the cell; they are also referred to as FRAP.
A small regulatory protein that has been found in almost all tissues (ubiquitously) of eukaryotic organisms. Among other functions, it directs protein recycling.It can be attached to proteins and label them for destruction. This protein tag directs proteins to the proteasome, which is a large protein complex in the cell that degrades and recycles unneeded proteins. This discovery won the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 2004.
The tags can also direct proteins to other locations in the cell, where they control other protein and cell mechanisms.
The structure formed by two tailed lipids when mixed with water, it consists of a spherical bilayer withthe hydrophobic tails pointing inwards and the hydrophillic heads pointing outwards in close contact with each other and the water.
5 True/False Questions
Small organelles which contain digestive enzymes with an internal pH of around 5. They are responsible for breaking down large molecules taken in to the cell by phagocytosis and also for the breaking down of old organelles.
Primary Structure →
This is the name given to the sequence of amino acid monomer units, or residues of which a compound is composed.
Non Polar → Any compound that increases the proton permiability of the inner mitochondrial membrane and hence severes the link between electron transport and ATP synthesis. Two example are thyroxine and brown adipose tissue.
Serine → Small chains of amino acids.
White 'glycolytic' fibres → Type I fibers appear red due to the presence of the oxygen binding protein myoglobin. These fibers are suited for endurance and are slow to fatigue because they use oxidative metabolism to generate ATP.