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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Gap junction
  2. Heterochromatin
  3. Microfilaments
  4. Euchromatin
  5. Hydrophobic residues/amino acid
  1. a
    This shows as dark areas on the eukaryotic nucleas; it is densly packed chormatin (DNA and protein complex) which cannot be transcribed.
  2. b Amino acids which are non polar and are repelled by water example are Alanine, Valine, Leucine, Isoleucine, Proline, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Tryptophan and Cystine. Hydrophbicity is also affected by pH levels in some cases.
  3. c
    Also known as actin filaments,one of three protein sub units that make up the eukaryote cytoskeleton. Found in highest concentration around the edges of the cell just below the cell membrane, they tend to form bundles. Actin polymers have the ability to disassemble and re-assemble meaning they are particulary useful for cell locomotion and in the microvilli of absorptive epithelial cells.
  4. d
    A specialised type of cell junction, an example of which is the smooth muscle of the intestine. The gap's allow for effective transmission of molecules and electrical activity between the cells.
  5. e
    This shows as pale areas in the nucleas under electro magnification. It is a less densly packed form of chromatin; 10% is even less condensed and in this form it can be actively transcribed to produce RNA.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. This is the group which varies in proteins and can be any of twenty amino acids, the polarity of this Group dictates how a protein will behave in certain pH conditions. This explains why enzymes require a certain pH to function.

  2. This complex (PDC) is a complex of three enzymes that transform pyruvate into acetyl-CoA by a process called pyruvate decarboxylation. Acetyl-CoA may then be used in the citric acid cycle to carry out cellular respiration, and this complex links the glycolysis metabolic pathway to the citric acid cycle. Pyruvate decarboxylation is also known as the "pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction" because it also involves the oxidation of pyruvate.This multi-enzyme complex is related structurally and functionally to the oxoglutarate dehydrogenase and branched-chain oxo-acid dehydrogenase multi-enzyme complexes.

  3. The anion of malic acid, this is an intermediate formed after reaction T7 in the TCA cycle. The enzyme Fumarase adds two hydrogens and one oxygen to fumate to form this
  4. A short polymer of 2 to twenty nucleotides. Derived from the Greek word Oligo, meaning few or little.
  5. Also called SRP, this is an abundant, cytosolic, universally conserved ribonucleoprotein (protein-RNA complex) that recognizes and targets specific proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum in eukaryotes and the plasma membrane in prokaryotes.

5 True/False questions

  1. Chemiosmotic Hypothesis
    The process by which substances are exported from a cell.


  2. Peripheral membrane proteins
    Proteins found in the cell membrane which attached to only one side of the membrane.


  3. Vesicles
    Small lipid-bounded spheres which transport proteins, glyco proteins and newly synthesized lipids (which are imbedded in the sphere itself) from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi Apparatus or from the Golgi apparatus to another destination. They move short distances by the process of difussion, moving long distances requires the assistance of proteins associated with microtubules.


  4. Golgi apparatus
    An isomer of citrate formed after the T2 reaction in the TCA cycle.Isocitrate is formed from citrate with the help of the enzyme aconitase, and is acted upon by isocitrate dehydrogenase.


  5. ATP synthase
    An important enzyme, a large structure which makes up 15% of the protein in the inner mitochondrial membrane, that provides energy for the cell to use through the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is the most commonly used "energy currency" of cells from most organisms. It is formed from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) which releases energy. This energy is often in the form of protium or H+, moving down an electrochemical gradient, such as from the lumen into the stroma of chloroplasts or from the inter-membrane space into the matrix in mitochondria.


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