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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. Endoplasmic Reticulum
  2. Peroxisomes
  3. Collagen
  4. Fe-S protein
  5. Plasmodesmata
  1. a
    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a eukaryotic organelle that forms an interconnected network of tubules, vesicles, and cisternae within cells. Rough endoplasmic reticula synthesize proteins, while smooth endoplasmic reticula synthesize lipids and steroids, metabolize carbohydrates and steroids (but not lipids), and regulate calcium concentration, drug metabolism, and attachment of receptors on cell membrane proteins. Sarcoplasmic reticula solely regulate calcium levels.
  2. b
    Membrane lined gap junctions which cross cell walls in plants.
  3. c
    Best known for their role in the oxidation-reduction reactions of mitochondrial electron transport. Both Complex I and Complex II of oxidative phosphorylation have multiple Fe-S clusters. They have many other functions including catalysis as illustrated by aconitase, generation of radicals as illustrated by SAM-dependent enzymes, and as sulfur donors in the biosynthesis of lipoic acid and biotin. Additionally some Fe-S proteins regulate gene expression. Fe-S proteins are vulnerable to attack by biogenic nitric oxide.
  4. d
    A strong protein which can provide strength and/or flexibility found in animal tissue.
  5. e
    Organelles that are plentiful in liver cells and adipocytes, responsible for breaking down fatty acids and amino acids in to hydrogen peroxide (among other things) via the action of an enzyme known as catalayse.

5 Multiple Choice Questions


  1. A non-covalent complex composed of a substrate bound to the active site of the enzyme

  2. A component of the citric acid cycle and is capable of donating electrons to the electron transport chain by the reaction:

    succinate + FAD → fumarate + FADH2.

    This is catalysed by the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase (or complex II of the mitochondrial ETC). The complex is a 4 subunit membrane-bound lipoprotein which couples the oxidation of succinate to the reduction of ubiquinone. Intermediate electron carriers are FAD and three Fe2S2 clusters part of subunit B.

  3. An important enzyme, a large structure which makes up 15% of the protein in the inner mitochondrial membrane, that provides energy for the cell to use through the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is the most commonly used "energy currency" of cells from most organisms. It is formed from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) which releases energy. This energy is often in the form of protium or H+, moving down an electrochemical gradient, such as from the lumen into the stroma of chloroplasts or from the inter-membrane space into the matrix in mitochondria.

  4. Also known as transmembrane potential this is the difference in voltage (also called electrical potential) between the interior and exterior of a cell. The membrane potential arises from the interactions of ion channels and ion pumps embedded in the membrane, which produce different concentrations of electrically charged ions on the intracellular and extracellular sides of the membrane. This enhances the passage of positive ions and impedes the entry of negative ions via the cell membrane.

  5. An enzyme catalysed process in which which ATP is made by transferring phosphate directly onto ADP from a phsphporylated carbon intermediate in the cytosol. This is the only way for cells without mitochondria to make ATP, such as red blood cells and the lens of the eye. It is also a main contributor of ATP for high energy cells such as those of the immune system.

5 True/False Questions

  1. PyridoxalPertaining to a compound exhibiting polarity or dipole moment, that is a compound bearing a partial positive charge on one side and a partial negative charge on the other.

          

  2. Red 'oxidative' fibresType I fibers appear red due to the presence of the oxygen binding protein myoglobin. These fibers are suited for endurance and are slow to fatigue because they use oxidative metabolism to generate ATP.

          

  3. White 'glycolytic' fibresType II fibers are white due to the absence of myoglobin and a reliance on glycolytic enzymes. These fibers are efficient for short bursts of speed and power and use both oxidative metabolism and anaerobic metabolism depending on the particular sub-type. These fibers are quicker to fatigue.

          

  4. Aspartate
    A component of the citric acid cycle and is capable of donating electrons to the electron transport chain by the reaction:

    succinate + FAD → fumarate + FADH2.

    This is catalysed by the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase (or complex II of the mitochondrial ETC). The complex is a 4 subunit membrane-bound lipoprotein which couples the oxidation of succinate to the reduction of ubiquinone. Intermediate electron carriers are FAD and three Fe2S2 clusters part of subunit B.

          

  5. N-CAMS/Neural Cell Adehesion Molecules
    The most stable structure for an aggregate of single tailed amphipathic liquid molecules e.g detergent in water.

          

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