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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. Peptide
  2. Substrate-level phosphorylation
  3. Protoctist
  4. Plastids
  5. N-CAMS/Neural Cell Adehesion Molecules
  1. a
    Any of various unicellular eukaryotic organisms and their multicellular, coenocytic or colocial descendants that belong to the kingdom of Protocista according to some taxonomic systems. The protoctists include protozoans, slime moulds, various algae and other groups. In many new classification systems, all proctists are considered protists.
  2. b Small chains of amino acids.
  3. c
    An enzyme catalysed process in which which ATP is made by transferring phosphate directly onto ADP from a phsphporylated carbon intermediate in the cytosol. This is the only way for cells without mitochondria to make ATP, such as red blood cells and the lens of the eye. It is also a main contributor of ATP for high energy cells such as those of the immune system.
  4. d
    These are major organelles found in the cells of plants and algae. They are the site of manufacture and storage of important chemical compounds used by the cell, often containing pigments used in photosynthesis. The types of pigments present can change or determine the cell's color.These organelles are responsible for photosynthesis, storage of products like starch and for synthesis. All types are derived from proplastids (formerly "eoplasts", eo-: dawn, early), which are present in the meristematic regions of the plant. Proplastids and young chloroplasts commonly divide, but more mature chloroplasts also have this capacity.
  5. e Membrane glycoproteins with an extracellular region made up of several domains. They are involved in the formation of intercellular junctions in neural tissue and unlike cadherins are not calcium dependant. As with cadherins they have sialic acid sugar components giving the cell membrane a negative charge discouragin inter cell adhesion.

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. An integral protein which has a polypeptide change which loops back across the membrane several times.
  2. Cellular compartments in cell biology comprise all closed parts within a cell, usually surrounded by a single or double lipid layer membrane. Most organelles are compartments like mitochondria, chloroplasts (in photosynthetic organisms), peroxisomes, lysosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum, the cell nucleus or the Golgi apparatus. Smaller elements like vesicles, and sometimes even microtubules can also be counted as compartments.

  3. These inhibitors do not appear to have the same structure as substrate, it therefor binds at a different site on the enzyme and the ES complex can still form. It does however hinder the catylitic action of the enzyme and the end product is never produced.

  4. An organism whose cells contain complex structures enclosed within membranes. The defining membrane bound structure thats sets them apart from prokaryotic cells is the nucleas or nuclear envelope within which the genetic material is carried. All species of large complex species are eukaryotes, including animals, plants and funghi.

  5. A small regulatory protein that has been found in almost all tissues (ubiquitously) of eukaryotic organisms. Among other functions, it directs protein recycling.It can be attached to proteins and label them for destruction. This protein tag directs proteins to the proteasome, which is a large protein complex in the cell that degrades and recycles unneeded proteins. This discovery won the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 2004.
    The tags can also direct proteins to other locations in the cell, where they control other protein and cell mechanisms.

5 True/False Questions

  1. PolarPertaining to a compound exhibiting polarity or dipole moment, that is a compound bearing a partial positive charge on one side and a partial negative charge on the other.


  2. Phagocytosis/Endocytosis
    The process by which substances or pathogens are taken in to a cell by engulfment by a vesicular structure surrounded by cell membrane.


  3. Gel Electrophoresis
    In simple terms: This is a procedure which enables the sorting of molecules based on size and charge. Using an electric field, molecules (such as DNA) can be made to move through a gel made of agar. The molecules being sorted are dispensed into a well in the gel material. The gel is placed in an electrophoresis chamber, which is then connected to a power source. When the electric current is applied, the larger molecules move more slowly through the gel while the smaller molecules move faster. The different sized molecules form distinct bands on the gel.


  4. Feedback inhibition of regulatory enzymes
    This is the mechanism by which the activity of an enzyme is allosterically effected by the later products in the catalytic pathway, thus preventing over production of the product. So the penultimate product of the enzyme also acts as the effector molecule at the enzyme allosteric site.


  5. Peripheral membrane proteins
    Proteins found in the cell membrane which attached to only one side of the membrane.


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