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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Connective Tissue
  2. Ficks Law
  3. Gel Electrophoresis
  4. β sheet
  5. Non Polar
  1. a Molecule which has no separation of charge, so no positive or negative poles are formed.
  2. b
    The name often given to tissue that contain a large proportion of extracellular matrix. In this tissues the cells that are secreting the materials are often quite far from each other.
  3. c
    In simple terms: This is a procedure which enables the sorting of molecules based on size and charge. Using an electric field, molecules (such as DNA) can be made to move through a gel made of agar. The molecules being sorted are dispensed into a well in the gel material. The gel is placed in an electrophoresis chamber, which is then connected to a power source. When the electric current is applied, the larger molecules move more slowly through the gel while the smaller molecules move faster. The different sized molecules form distinct bands on the gel.
  4. d
    The β sheet (also β-pleated sheet) is the second form of regular secondary structure in proteins, only somewhat less common than alpha helix. Beta sheets consist of beta strands connected laterally by at least two or three backbone hydrogen bonds, forming a generally twisted, pleated sheet. A beta strand (also β strand) is a stretch of polypeptide chain typically 3 to 10 amino acids long with backbone in an almost fully extended conformation. The higher-level association of β sheets has been implicated in formation of the protein aggregates and fibrils observed in many human diseases, notably the amyloidoses such as Alzheimer's disease.
  5. e These laws of diffusion describe diffusion and can be used to solve for the diffusion coefficient, D. They were derived by Adolf Fick in the year 1855.The equation relates the difference (Ch-Cl) between the higher, Ch, and the lower Cl, concentrations of the substance, the area (A) and the thickness (x)of the membrane and a constant (D), called the diffusion coefficient, the value of which depends on the nature of the diffusing substance (e.g polarity, size, temperature etc).

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. A combination of two acetyl CoA molecules which is used as fuel by the heart and brain.

  2. This form of secondary active transport uses the downhill movement of one solute species from high to low concentration to move another molecule uphill from low concentration to high concentration (against its electrochemical gradient). An example is the glucose symporter SGLT1, which co-transports one glucose (or galactose) molecule into the cell for every two sodium ions it imports into the cell. This symporter is located in the small intestines, trachea, heart, brain, testis, and prostate. It is also located in the S3 segment of the proximal tubule in each nephron in the kidneys. Its mechanism is exploited in glucose rehydration therapy and defects in SGLT1 prevent effective reabsorption of glucose, causing familial renal glucosuria.

  3. Also known as A and Ade, this is a nucleobase (a purine derivative) with a variety of roles in biochemistry including cellular respiration, in the form of both the energy-rich adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), and protein synthesis, as a chemical component of DNA and RNA.[2] The shape of adenine is complementary to either thymine in DNA or uracil in RNA.

  4. This protein plays a major role in the formation of coated vesicles. It forms a triskelion shape composed of three clathrin heavy chains and three light chains. When the triskelia interact they form a polyhedral lattice that surrounds the vesicle. Coat-proteins, like clathrin, are used to build small vesicles in order to safely transport molecules between cells. The endocytosis and exocytosis of vesicles allows cells to transfer nutrients, to import signaling receptors, to mediate an immune response after sampling the extracellular world, and to clean up the cell debris left by tissue inflammation. On occasion, this mechanism also provides a pathway for raiding pathogens or toxins.

  5. Also known as triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride)an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids.It is the main constituent of vegetable oil and animal fats.

5 True/False questions

  1. StromaGlucose transporter type 4, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GLUT4 gene. It is the insulin-regulated glucose transporter found in adipose tissues and striated muscle (skeletal and cardiac) that is responsible for insulin-regulated glucose translocation into the cell. This protein is expressed primarily in muscle and fat cells, the major tissues in the body that respond to insulinThe specific membrane transporter protein upregulated by insulin when glucose is in high concentrations in the blood.


  2. White 'glycolytic' fibresType II fibers are white due to the absence of myoglobin and a reliance on glycolytic enzymes. These fibers are efficient for short bursts of speed and power and use both oxidative metabolism and anaerobic metabolism depending on the particular sub-type. These fibers are quicker to fatigue.


  3. Amphipathic LipidsThese lipids are molecules that are mostly lipid-like (hydrophobic) in structure, but at one end have a region that is polar or ionic (hydrophilic). The hydrophilic region is usually referred to as the head group, and the lipid portion is known as the tail(s). Cell membranes typically consist of three separate classes of lipids of this type. These include phospholipids, glycolipids, and steroids.


  4. Hydrophillic residues/amino acidAmino acids which are non polar and are repelled by water example are Alanine, Valine, Leucine, Isoleucine, Proline, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Tryptophan and Cystine. Hydrophbicity is also affected by pH levels in some cases.


  5. NH₃
    Ammonia, a biproduct of the GDH reaction during deamination which is highly toxic and water soluble, thus able to move out of the mitochodrial matrix easily.


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