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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Plastids
  2. Catalytic site
  3. Caveolin
  4. Substrate-level phosphorylation
  5. Ficks Law
  1. a These laws of diffusion describe diffusion and can be used to solve for the diffusion coefficient, D. They were derived by Adolf Fick in the year 1855.The equation relates the difference (Ch-Cl) between the higher, Ch, and the lower Cl, concentrations of the substance, the area (A) and the thickness (x)of the membrane and a constant (D), called the diffusion coefficient, the value of which depends on the nature of the diffusing substance (e.g polarity, size, temperature etc).
  2. b A transmembrane protein responsible for the formation of caveola.
  3. c
    These are major organelles found in the cells of plants and algae. They are the site of manufacture and storage of important chemical compounds used by the cell, often containing pigments used in photosynthesis. The types of pigments present can change or determine the cell's color.These organelles are responsible for photosynthesis, storage of products like starch and for synthesis. All types are derived from proplastids (formerly "eoplasts", eo-: dawn, early), which are present in the meristematic regions of the plant. Proplastids and young chloroplasts commonly divide, but more mature chloroplasts also have this capacity.
  4. d
    An enzyme catalysed process in which which ATP is made by transferring phosphate directly onto ADP from a phsphporylated carbon intermediate in the cytosol. This is the only way for cells without mitochondria to make ATP, such as red blood cells and the lens of the eye. It is also a main contributor of ATP for high energy cells such as those of the immune system.
  5. e
    In molecular biology this site is part of an enzyme where substrates bind and undergo a chemical reaction.The majority of enzymes are proteins but RNA enzymes called ribozymes also exist. The active site of an enzyme is usually found in a cleft or pocket that is lined by amino acid residues (or nucleotides in ribozymes) that participate in recognition of the substrate. Residues that directly participate in the catalytic reaction mechanism are called active site residues.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Junctions present in many types of animal tissue which serve to hold the constituentcells to each other and to the surrounding extra cellular matrix. They all have a common general structure consisting of transmembrane protein molecules known as cadhedrins.

  2. Also known as mucopolysaccharides these are long unbranched polysaccharides consisting of a repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating unit consists of a hexose (six-carbon sugar) or a hexuronic acid, linked to a hexosamine (six-carbon sugar containing nitrogen). These are the major component of the 'gel' found in the extracellular matrix of tissue. They are negatively charged and thus attract ions, especially sodium which aids diffusion of water in to the tissue, giving tissue it's compression resistance.
  3. This is the process by which electrons are transferred from electron donors to electron acceptors such as oxygen, in redox reactions. These redox reactions release energy, which is used to form ATP. In eukaryotes, these redox reactions are carried out by a series of protein complexes within mitochondria, whereas, in prokaryotes, these proteins are located in the cells' inner membranes. These linked sets of proteins are called electron transport chains. In eukaryotes, five main protein complexes are involved, whereas in prokaryotes many different enzymes are present, using a variety of electron donors and acceptors.

  4. This form of transport is the movement of a substance against its concentration gradient (from low to high concentration). In all cells, this is usually concerned with accumulating high concentrations of molecules that the cell needs, such as ions, glucose, and amino acids. If the process uses chemical energy, such as from adenosine triphosphate (ATP), it is termed primary active transport. Secondary active transport involves the use of an electrochemical gradient. Active transport uses energy, unlike passive transport, which does not use any type of energy. Active transport is a good example of a process for which cells require energy. Examples of active transport include the uptake of glucose in the intestines in humans and the uptake of mineral ions into root hair cells of plants.

  5. Stroma (fluid), the fluid in between grana, where carbohydrate formation reactions occur in the chloroplasts of plant cells photosynthesizing

5 True/False questions

  1. N-CAMS/Neural Cell Adehesion Molecules
    Proteins which span the width of the cell membrane, protruding on the apical and basal surface.


  2. Liposomes
    Organelles that are plentiful in liver cells and adipocytes, responsible for breaking down fatty acids and amino acids in to hydrogen peroxide (among other things) via the action of an enzyme known as catalayse.


  3. Amino Terminus
    This protein plays a major role in the formation of coated vesicles. It forms a triskelion shape composed of three clathrin heavy chains and three light chains. When the triskelia interact they form a polyhedral lattice that surrounds the vesicle. Coat-proteins, like clathrin, are used to build small vesicles in order to safely transport molecules between cells. The endocytosis and exocytosis of vesicles allows cells to transfer nutrients, to import signaling receptors, to mediate an immune response after sampling the extracellular world, and to clean up the cell debris left by tissue inflammation. On occasion, this mechanism also provides a pathway for raiding pathogens or toxins.


  4. PolarPertaining to a compound exhibiting polarity or dipole moment, that is a compound bearing a partial positive charge on one side and a partial negative charge on the other.


  5. HomogenateCells are broken up by a homogeniser (blender). This releases the organelles from the cell. The resultant fluid is known as the homogenate, which is then filtered to remove any complete cells and large pieces of debris.


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