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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Adenine
  2. Enzyme Assay
  3. Mitochondrial Matrix
  4. Nucleotide
  5. Irreversible Inhibitors
  1. a
    Also known as A and Ade, this is a nucleobase (a purine derivative) with a variety of roles in biochemistry including cellular respiration, in the form of both the energy-rich adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), and protein synthesis, as a chemical component of DNA and RNA.[2] The shape of adenine is complementary to either thymine in DNA or uracil in RNA.
  2. b
    The basic building block of nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA. It is an organic compound made up of nitrogenous base, a sugar, and a phosphate group.
  3. c Usually not of biological origins, these act by forming strong covalent bonds with the enzyme, poisoning them. The bond is so strong it is irreversible and example of this would be heavy metal toxicity.
  4. d This matrix contains soluble enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of pyruvate and other small organic molecules.
    It also contains the mitochondria's DNA and ribosomes. The word "matrix" stems from the fact that this space is viscous, compared to the relatively aqueous cytoplasm.
  5. e A technique used to measure the rate of activity of an enzyme by measuring the products expected of the enzyme activity, for example CO₂.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Cells are broken up by a homogeniser (blender). This releases the organelles from the cell. The resultant fluid is known as the homogenate, which is then filtered to remove any complete cells and large pieces of debris.

  2. An organism whose cells contain complex structures enclosed within membranes. The defining membrane bound structure thats sets them apart from prokaryotic cells is the nucleas or nuclear envelope within which the genetic material is carried. All species of large complex species are eukaryotes, including animals, plants and funghi.

  3. An isomer of citrate formed after the T2 reaction in the TCA cycle.Isocitrate is formed from citrate with the help of the enzyme aconitase, and is acted upon by isocitrate dehydrogenase.
  4. Flux, or metabolic flux is the rate of turnover of molecules through a metabolic pathway. Flux is regulated by the enzymes involved in a pathway. Within cells, regulation of flux is vital for all metabolic pathways to regulate the metabolic pathway's activity under different conditions. Flux is therefore of great interest in metabolic network modelling, where it is analysed via flux balance analysis.

  5. In biochemistry and molecular biology, this structure of a protein or any other macromolecule is its three-dimensional structure, as defined by the atomic coordinates.[6] Proteins and nucleic acids are capable of diverse functions ranging from molecular recognition to catalysis. Such functions require a precise three-dimensional tertiary structure. While such structures are diverse and seemingly complex, they are composed of recurring, easily recognizable tertiary structure motifs that serve as molecular building blocks. Tertiary structure is considered to be largely determined by the biomolecule's primary structure, or the sequence of amino acids or nucleotides of which it is composed. Efforts to predict tertiary structure from the primary structure are known generally as structure prediction.

5 True/False questions

  1. Chemiosmotic HypothesisThe hypothesis of the movement of ions across a selectively permeable membrane, down their electrochemical gradient, generates energy. More specifically, it relates to the generation of ATP by the movement of hydrogen ions across a membrane during cellular respiration.
    An Ion gradient has potential energy and can be used to power chemical reactions when the ions pass through a channel.
    Hydrogen ions (protons) will diffuse from an area of high proton concentration to an area of lower proton concentration. Peter Mitchell proposed that an electrochemical concentration gradient of protons across a membrane could be harnessed to make ATP. He linked this process to osmosis, the diffusion of water across a membrane, which is why it is called chemiosmosis.
    ATP synthase is the enzyme that makes ATP by chemiosmosis. It allows protons to pass through the membrane using the kinetic energy to phosphorylate ADP making ATP. The generation of ATP by chemiosmosis occurs in chloroplasts and mitochondria as well as in some bacteria.


  2. Non Polar
    A multisubunit protein which holds gap junctions together in animal cells.


  3. Hydrophillic residues/amino acidAmino acids which are polar and are attracted to water examples are Glutamine, Serine,Theronine, Histodine, Lysine. Hydrophbicity is also affected by pH levels in some cases.


  4. Michaelis-Menton equationThe name given to a growing polypeptide chain. Literally translated this word means beginning to exist or develop.


  5. Metabolic channellingSubstrate channeling is when the intermediary metabolic product of one enzyme is passed directly to another enzyme or active site without being released into solution. When several consecutive enzymes of a metabolic pathway channel substrates between themselves, this is called a metabolon. Channeling can make a metabolic pathway more rapid and efficient than it would be if the enzymes were randomly distributed in the cytosol, or prevent the release of unstable intermediates. It can also protect an intermediate from being consumed by competing reactions catalyzed by other enzymes.


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