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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. Plastids
  2. Mitochondrial DNA
  3. Adherens Junctions
  4. Peripheral membrane proteins
  5. The gamma rod
  1. a
    These are major organelles found in the cells of plants and algae. They are the site of manufacture and storage of important chemical compounds used by the cell, often containing pigments used in photosynthesis. The types of pigments present can change or determine the cell's color.These organelles are responsible for photosynthesis, storage of products like starch and for synthesis. All types are derived from proplastids (formerly "eoplasts", eo-: dawn, early), which are present in the meristematic regions of the plant. Proplastids and young chloroplasts commonly divide, but more mature chloroplasts also have this capacity.
  2. b The centrally located crank shaft found in ATP synthase thought to be involved in the conversion of an energy gradient in to elastic energy.
  3. c These junctions function in the same way as anchoring junctions, linking intercellular cytoskeletons using cadherin. Unlike the anchoring junctions these junctions use the actin filaments not the intermediate filaments to secure the cells.
  4. d
    Proteins found in the cell membrane which attached to only one side of the membrane.
  5. e The DNA located in mitochondria
    It can be regarded as the smallest chromosome, and was the first significant part of the human genome to be sequenced. In most species, including humans, mtDNA is inherited solely from the mother. The DNA sequence of mtDNA has been determined from a large number of organisms and individuals (including some organisms that are extinct), and the comparison of those DNA sequences represents a mainstay of phylogenetics, in that it allows biologists to elucidate the evolutionary relationships among species. It also permits an examination of the relatedness of populations, and so has become important in anthropology and field biology.

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. An optical technique capable of quantifying the two dimensional lateral diffusion of a molecularly thin film containing fluorescently labeled probes, or to examine single cells. This technique is very useful in biological studies of cell membrane diffusion and protein binding. In addition, surface deposition of a fluorescing phospholipid bilayer (or monolayer) allows the characterization of hydrophilic (or hydrophobic) surfaces in terms of surface structure and free energy. Similar, though less well known, techniques have been developed to investigate the 3-dimensional diffusion and binding of molecules inside the cell; they are also referred to as FRAP.
  2. The name given to a growing polypeptide chain. Literally translated this word means beginning to exist or develop.

  3. The anion of malic acid, this is an intermediate formed after reaction T7 in the TCA cycle. The enzyme Fumarase adds two hydrogens and one oxygen to fumate to form this

  4. Hollow tubes composed of thirteen parallel filaments of polymerized tubulin, measuring about 25 nm in external diameter. Part of the cytoskeleton of ALL eukaryote cells radiating from the centrosome in the nucleas towards the edges of the cell. They are very unstable and are constantly disassembling and reassembling so most do not reach the cell cortex. These tubules play a crucial role in cell organisation, movement of organelles and the reorganization of chormosomes in to daughter cells during mitosis.

  5. A cis configuration means that adjacent hydrogen atoms are on the same side of the double bond. The rigidity of the double bond freezes its conformation and, in the case of the cis isomer, causes the chain to bend and restricts the conformational freedom of the fatty acid. The more double bonds the chain has in the cis configuration, the less flexibility it has. When a chain has many cis bonds, it becomes quite curved in its most accessible conformations. For example, oleic acid, with one double bond, has a "kink" in it, whereas linoleic acid, with two double bonds, has a more pronounced bend. Alpha-linolenic acid, with three double bonds, favors a hooked shape. The effect of this is that, in restricted environments, such as when fatty acids are part of a phospholipid in a lipid bilayer, or triglycerides in lipid droplets, cis bonds limit the ability of fatty acids to be closely packed, and therefore could affect the melting temperature of the membrane or of the fat.

5 True/False Questions

  1. Chaperone Protein
    A membrane protein, involved in passive and active transport, that binds to a solute molecule or ion and releases it on the other side of the membrane. An example of this is the glucose carrier protein in mammalian cells which responds only to glucose and not other sugars and moves glucose down a concentration gradient from the outside to the inside of the cell.


  2. Sodium Pump
    An extracellular structure in plants which is rigid and surrounds the cell membrane giving it shape and support, like playtex for plants lol! It is primarily composed of cellulose which is a polysaccharide.


  3. Pyruvate
    In glycolysis, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) is converted to pyruvate by pyruvate kinase. This reaction is strongly exergonic and irreversible; in gluconeogenesis, it takes two enzymes, pyruvate carboxylase and PEP carboxykinase, to catalyze the reverse transformation of pyruvate to PEP. The pyruvate is removed from the mitochondria via a membrane bound protein carrier known as the pyruvate transporter.


  4. Nuclear pore complex
    The basic building block of nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA. It is an organic compound made up of nitrogenous base, a sugar, and a phosphate group.


    Internal compartments formed by the inner membrane of a mitochondrion. They are studded with proteins, including ATP synthase and a variety of cytochromes. The maximum surface for chemical reactions to occur is within the mitochondria. This allows cellular respiration (aerobic respiration since the mitochondrion requires oxygen) to occur.


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