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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Michaelis-Menton equation
  2. Pyridoxal
  3. Glutamate dehydrogenase
  4. Nucleotide
  5. Alanine
  1. a
    The basic building block of nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA. It is an organic compound made up of nitrogenous base, a sugar, and a phosphate group.
  2. b
    A coenzyme which assists transaminase enzymes in the deamination of proteins to allow them to be fed in to the TCA cycle, also known as vitamin B6.
  3. c This equation can be used if a range of [S] values is known, to plot a line.
    E + S ↔ ES → E + P
  4. d
    Glutamate dehydrogenase is an enzyme, present in most microbes and the mitochondria of eukaryotes, as are some of the other enzymes required for urea synthesis, that converts glutamate to α-Ketoglutarate, and vice versa. In animals, the produced ammonia is, however, usually bled off to the urea cycle. In bacteria, the ammonia is assimilated to amino acids via glutamate and amidotransferases. In plants, the enzyme can work in either direction depending on environment and stress. Transgenic plants expressing microbial GDHs are improved in tolerance to herbicide, water deficit, and pathogen infections.They are more nutritionally valuable.
  5. e
    Alanine (abbreviated as Ala or A)[2] is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula CH3CH(NH2)COOH. It can be synthesized from the pyruvate intermediate of the TCA cycle. The L-isomer is one of the 22 proteinogenic amino acids, i.e., the building blocks of proteins. Its codons are GCU, GCC, GCA, and GCG. It is classified as a nonpolar amino acid. L-Alanine is second only to leucine in rate of occurrence, accounting for 7.8% of the primary structure in a sample of 1,150 proteins.D-Alanine occurs in bacterial cell walls and in some peptide antibiotics.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Type II fibers are white due to the absence of myoglobin and a reliance on glycolytic enzymes. These fibers are efficient for short bursts of speed and power and use both oxidative metabolism and anaerobic metabolism depending on the particular sub-type. These fibers are quicker to fatigue.

  2. This is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells.It was identified in 1897 by the Italian physician Camillo Golgi, after whom it is named. It processes and packages proteins after their synthesis and before they make their way to their destination; it is particularly important in the processing of proteins for secretion. Its size varies in different types of cells depending on cell function; a hormone secreting cell will contain a far larger version of this organelle than a muscle cell for example. It also forms a part of the cellular endomembrane system.

  3. Also known as mucopolysaccharides these are long unbranched polysaccharides consisting of a repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating unit consists of a hexose (six-carbon sugar) or a hexuronic acid, linked to a hexosamine (six-carbon sugar containing nitrogen). These are the major component of the 'gel' found in the extracellular matrix of tissue. They are negatively charged and thus attract ions, especially sodium which aids diffusion of water in to the tissue, giving tissue it's compression resistance.

  4. An important enzyme, a large structure which makes up 15% of the protein in the inner mitochondrial membrane, that provides energy for the cell to use through the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is the most commonly used "energy currency" of cells from most organisms. It is formed from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) which releases energy. This energy is often in the form of protium or H+, moving down an electrochemical gradient, such as from the lumen into the stroma of chloroplasts or from the inter-membrane space into the matrix in mitochondria.

  5. Negatively charged membrane glycoprotein which help to prevent red blood cells from sticking together through the actions of sialic acid sugar which is attached to it's extracellular domain .

5 True/False questions

  1. Km
    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, abbreviated NAD+, is a coenzyme found in all living cells. The compound is a dinucleotide, since it consists of two nucleotides joined through their phosphate groups, with one nucleotide containing an adenine base and the other containing nicotinamide.

          

  2. Substrate
    In biochemistry, a substrate is a molecule upon which an enzyme acts. Enzymes catalyze chemical reactions involving the substrate(s). In the case of a single substrate, the substrate binds with the enzyme active site, and an enzyme-substrate complex is formed. The substrate is transformed into one or more products, which are then released from the active site. The active site is now free to accept another substrate molecule. In the case of more than one substrate, these may bind in a particular order to the active site, before reacting together to produce products.

          

  3. LDH reactionThe addition of electrons/hydrogen atoms to a molecule/substance.

          

  4. Cytochromes
    Special proteins around which DNA is wrapped.

          

  5. Mobile carriersTwo such carriers are found in the ETC in the form of ubiquinone (or Q) and the protein cytochrome c.

          

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