four main classes of large biological molecules: carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids
a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by a dehydration reactions.
small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers
A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
protein that acts as a biological catalyst
a chemical reaction that breaks apart a larger molecule by adding a molecule of water
Carbohydrates consist of sugars and polymers of sugar. They serve as stored fuel and structural material. They are organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in the proportion of 1:2:1
The simplest carbohydrate, serve as a monomer for disaccharides and polysaccharides. Also known as simple sugars, the molecular formulas of are generally some multiple of CH2O.
A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage through dehydration synthesis.
A covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction.
A polymer of up to over a thousand monosaccharides, formed by dehydration reactions. There are two main types of polysaccharides: storage and structural polysaccharides.
A storage polysaccharide in plants consisting entirely of glucose. Humans and most animals have enzymes which can hydrolyze starch for nutrient.
An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch.
A structural polysaccharide of cell walls, consisting of glucose monomers joined by b-1- 4 glycosidic linkages.
A hydrophobic macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes
Three-carbon alcohol with three hydroxyl groups; component of fats and oils.
A long carbon chain with an attached carboxyl group attached to the end and a hydrocarbon chain attached to the carboxyl group. It is this hydrocarbon chain which gives the fatty acid a hydrophobic nature.
A Bond between hydroxyl and carboxyl grp, joining glycerol and fatty acids together → dehydration rxn
3 fatty acids (chains of hydrocarbons) bonded to a glycerol, most fats are eaten and absorbed in this form, carbohydrate
fatty acid chains lacking double bonds; therefore, the chains pack tightly, are solid at room temp and bad fats, major source is animals
Fats that contain one or more double bonds between carbon atoms and have less than the maximum number of hydrogen atoms bonded to carbon
artificial fat made from the process of hydrogenation; believed to increase a person's risk for coronary artery disease
A molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail.
A type of lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four rings.
a steroid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids, such as hormones.
A three-dimensional biological polymer constructed from a set of 20 different monomers called amino acids. perform a variety of essential functions - support, movement, transport, buffering, metabolic regulation, coordination, defense.
A protein that catalyzes a specific chemical reaction
Proteins that are important for holding cells and organisms together, such as the proteins that make up the cell membrane, muscles, tendons, and blood
long amino acid chains bonded by a dehydration reaction, involved in protein synthesis
organic molecules possessing both carboxyl and amino groups that are linked together to form large protein molecules
Covalent bond formed between a carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid through a dehydration reaction.
small spherical proteins with little to no water inside. They have hydrophobic amino acids in the inside and hydrophilic R groups on the outside.
(Structural proteins) Insoluble in water; chief building materials of the body; usually used to construct connective tissues, tendons, bone matrix and muscle fiber.
The first level of protein structure referring to the specific sequence of amino acids, making up a polypeptide chain.
Secondary structure is the repetitive coiling and folding of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bond formed between the different amino acids.
spiral shape created by polypeptide chains that inter twine around each other
b pleated sheet
One form of the secondary structure of proteins in which the polypeptide chain folds back and forth. Two regions of the chain lie parallel to each other and are held together by hydrogen bonds.
irregular contortions of a protein molecule due to interactions of side chains involved in hydrophobic interactions, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bridges
As a polypeptide folds into its functional conformation, amino acids with hydrophobic side chains usually end up in clusters at the core of the protein, out of contact with the water.
Strong covalent bonds formed when the sulfur of one cysteine monomer bonds to the sulfur of another cysteine monomer.
The fourth level of protein structure; the shape resulting from the association of two or more polypeptide subunits.
a structural change in a protein that results in a loss of its biological properties
protein molecules that assist the proper folding of other proteins
a technique that depends on the diffraction of an X-ray beam by the individual atoms of a crystallized molecule to study the three-dimensional structure of the molecule.
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
Polymers assembled from individual nucleotides; used to store and transmit hereditary, or genetic, information; the two kinds of nucleic acids are ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes
ribonucleic acid; a nucleic acid that plays an important role in the production of proteins
messenger RNA; type of RNA that carries instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome
A polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers.
monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
DNA that refers to just the sugar and bases with the absence of a phosphate group.
nitrogenous bases that have a single ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms, such as cytosine and thymine
nitrogeneous bases that have a double ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms such as adenine and guanine
a five-carbon monosaccharide found in RNA
five-carbon sugar that is a component of DNA nucleotides
The form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape.
The opposite arrangement of the sugar-phosphate backbones in a DNA double helix.