Populations/Communities/Ecosystems

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37 terms · AP Biology: Unit 8, Chapter 53, 54, & 55

population

Group of individuals of the same species living in the same area

density

Number of individuals per unit area/volume

dispersion

Pattern of spacing among individuals

habitat

Type of area an organism lives in

niche

Role in an ecosystem

type 1

Survivorship Curve: Most live long, K-selected

type 2

Survivorship Curve: Constant death-rate

type 3

Survivorship Curve: Most die young, r-selected opportunists

biotic potential

Maximum population growth rate under ideal conditions

limiting factors

Factors negatively affecting population growth rate

exponential growth

J-shaped population growth, unlimited

logistic growth

S-shaped population growth, limited

carrying capacity

Maximum individuals a population can be supported on by a habitat

competitive exclusion principle

No two species can occupy the same niche; one out-competes the other, other is eliminated

resource partitioning

Species seemingly coexist in same area, but occupy slightly different niches

character displacement

Selection of adaptations that reduce competition

keystone species

Important regulating effect on community, maintains diversity

symbiosis

Species interaction

mutualism

+/+

commensalism

+/0

parasitism

+/-

predation

+/-

competition

-/-

cryptic coloration

Camouflage

aposematic coloration

Warning coloration

batesian mimicry

Harmless mimics harmful

mullerian mimicry

Warning colors, both harmful

ecological succession

Predictable change in composition of species in community over time

pioneer species

Opportunistic r-selected

communities

Interaction of populations

energy flow

90% energy is lost through trophic levels

primary producers

Autotrophs

primary consumers

Herbivores

secondary consumers

Consume herbivores

tertiary consumers

Consume most other animals

detritivores

Organisms that consume organic litter debris and dung

decomposers

Organisms that break down waste/dead organisms

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