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anaphase

the third phase of mitosis, during which the chromosome pairs separate and move toward opposite poles

asexual reproduction

process by which a single parent reproduces by itself

cancer

disorder in which some of the body's own cells lose the ability to control growth

cell cycle

series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide

centromere

area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached

chromatid

one of two identical "sister" parts of a duplicated chromosome

crossing over

process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis

cytokinesis

division of the cytoplasm during cell division

diploid (2n)

term used to refer to a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes

egg

Female sex cell

haploid (n)

term used to refer to a cell that contains only a single set of chromosomes and therefore only a single set of genes

interphase

period of the cell cycle between cell divisions

meiosis

process by which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell

metaphase

second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell

mitosis

part of eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides

prophase

first and longest phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes become visible and the centrioles separate and take up positions on the opposite sides of the nucleus

sexual reproduction

process by which cells from two different parents unite to produce the first cell of a new organism

sperm

Male sex cell

spindle

fanlike microtubule structure that helps separate the chromosomes during mitosis

telophase

fourth and final phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes begin to disperse into a tangle of dense material

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