Functional Anatomy chap 6 pt 2
|Facial bones||The paired bones of the face are the maxillae, palatine bones, zygomatic bones, lacrimal bones, nasal bones, and inferior nasal conchae. The singal bones are the vomar and mandible.|
|Maxillae|| This facial bone forms the upper jaw. |
-Each maxillae is formed seperately but they are joined at the midline in embryonic stage.
-The maxillae articulate with all of the other facial bones except the mandible.
|Maxillary sinus||They are large sinus and are present in each maxilla just below the orbitals.|
|Palatine bones||Are bones fused at the midline to form the posterior portion of the hard palate.. Each bone has a lateral portion that projects upward to form part of the wall of nasal cavity.|
|Zygomatic bones|| These bones are the cheek bones. |
-The temporal process extends to unite with the zygomatic process, to form the zygomatic arch.
|Lacrimal bones|| Are small, thin bones that form part of the medial surfaces of the eye orbits. |
-Each lacrimal bone is located between the ethmoid and maxilla.
|Nasal bones||Are thin bones fused at the midline to form the bridge of the nose.|
|Vomer bone|| Is a thin, flat bone located on the midline of the nasal cavity. |
-It joins posteriorly with the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid, and these two bones form the nasal septum.
|Inferior nasal conchae||Are the scrol like bones attached to the lateral walls of the nasal cavity inferior to the medial nasal conchae of the ethmoid bone.|
|Mandible||IS the lower jawbone, and it is the only movable bone in the skull.|
|Hyoid bone|| Is a small, u-shaped bone located in the anterior portion of the neck, inferior to the mandible. |
-It does not articulate with any bone.
-Muscles of the tongue are attached to the hyoid.
|Fontanels||Are nonossified areas also called soft spots.|
|Vertebral column|| Extends from the skull to the pelvis and forms somewhat flexible, but sturdy longitudinal support for the trunk.|
-It is formed of 24 movable vertebrae, sacrum, and coccyx.
|Intervertabral disks||These disks separate the vertebrae and serve as shock absorbers and allow bending of the spinal column.|
|Four curvatures||The cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and pelvic curvatures. From top to bottom.|
|Vertebrae||They are divided into three groups; Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumbar.|
|Neural arch||Is bony and surrounds the large vertebral foramen.|
|Vertebral foramen||Is the foramen which through the spinal cord passes.|
|Intervertebral foramina||They occur between adjacent vertebrae and serve as lateral passageways for spinal nerves that exit the spinal cord.|
|Cervical vertebrae||Are vertebrae that support the neck that have transverse foramen which serve as passageways for blood vessels and nerves.|
|Atlas||Is the first cervical vertebrae.|
|Axis||Is the 2nd cervical vertebrae.|
|Thoracic vertebrae|| there are 12 vertebrae and are larger than the cervical, and their spinous process are longer and slope downward. |
-Their ribs articulate with the transverse process and bodies of thoracic vertebrae.
|Lunbar vertebrae||The spinous processes are blunt and they provide a large surface area for the attachment of heavy back muscles.|
|Sacrum||Is composed of 5 fused vertebrae. It articulates with the 5th lumbar vertebrae and forms the posterior wall of the pelvic girdle.|
|Coccyx||The most inferior part of the vertebral column which is formed of 3 to 5 fused, rudimentary vertebrae. Also known as the tailbone.|
|Thoracic cage|| The thoracic vertebrae, ribs, costal cartilages, and sternum form the thoracic or rib cage. |
-It provides protection for the internal organs of the thorax and supports the upper trunk, shoulder girdle, and upper extremities.
|ribs|| -True ribs (#1-7) or upper ribs are attached to the sternum by the costal cartilages, which extend medially from the ends of the ribs. |
-The False ribs (#8-10) are attached by cartilages to the costal cartilages of the ribs superior to them.
-The floating ribs (#11-12) lack cartilage and are not attached anteriorly.
|Sternum|| Or breathstone, is a flat, elongated bone located at the midline in the anterior portion of the thoracic cage. |
-It consists of 3 bones; The manubrium, body, and the xiphoid process.
|The 3 bones of sternum|| 1. Manubrium is the t-shaped upper portion that articulates with the first two pairs of ribs. |
2. The body is the larger middle segent
3. The xiphoid process is the small inferior portion.