Anatomy Chapter 3

54 terms by mricci27 

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What are the three main parts of a eukaryotic cell?

plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus

Plasma membranes consist of what three components?

proteins, phospholipids, cholesterol

What are the non polar parts of a phospholipid?

tail group

This is the only polar portion of a cholesterol molecule and it forms hydrogen bonds with the polar heads of phospholipids.

-OH group

These membrane enclosed compartments or organized aggregates perform special functions in cellular growth, maintenance and reproduction.

organelles

This organelle is comprised of microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules.

cytoskeleton

This is comprised of a pair of centrioles and pericentriolar materials.

centrosome

One type of human cell (e.g. spermatozoa) is capable of movement because it has this type of structure made of microtubules.

flagella

This membranous organelle contains ribosomes on its cytoplasmic surface, which synthesis proteins.

rough er

This is an organelle that modifies proteins produced elsewhere.

golgi body

These are small flattened curved membranous sacs with bulging edges containing fusing and exiting vesicles.

cisternae

This organelle contains strong oxidases that oxidize organic molecules?

peroxisomes

Which organelle recycles worn out organelles?

lysosomes

Proteasomes

degrade faulty cellular proteins

Mitochondria

generate ATP

Which of the following separates the contents of the nucleus from the cytoplasm?

nuclear membrane (envelope)

What is the major function of a histone protein?

help organize coiling of DNA

This is a long, maximally tightly coiled, molecule of DNA that contains genes-there are 46 in each body cell.

chromatid

This binds to an amino acid and holds it in place on a ribosome until it is incorporated into a protein during translation.

tRNA

This portion of a DNA segment does not code for a protein.

intron

This process describes the division of the cytoplasm.

cytokinesis

The function of mitosis is

produce new cells with equal genetic material as the parent cell

Which of the following is not a function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?

stores proteins with large hydrophobic portions

Which membrane-bound organelle recycles worn out organelles and carries out intracellular digestion?

lysosomes

Mitochondria are organelles that...

extract energy from food

mRNAs are first transcribed as very long molecules with both coding and non codon portions. The coding portions are called...

exons

This organelle modifies proteins produced in the rough endoplasmic reticulum

golgi body

Transport vesicles containing cargo and membrane proteins are constantly fusing and being formed from this organelle that adds non-amino acids groupings to to the proteins

golgi body

The chamber of this organelle contains oxidative enzymes involving oxygen and free radicals that would otherwise damage cytoplasmic proteins.

peroxisomes

Proteasomes are protein assemblies that...

degrade faulty cellular proteins

This structure assembles proteins for use in the cytoplasm of the cell

free ribosomes

The "beads on a string" model refers most appropriately to...

initial folding of DNA in chromatin structure

The three nucleotides that on mRNA that specify the position of a particular amino acid in a protein is specifically called a(n)

codon

Which of the following accounts for the fact that humans have only about 25,000 genes but make over 100,000 proteins....

alternative splicing generates different mRNAs from the same pre-mRNA

Tay-Sachs disease and other diseases where certain materials accumulate in the cells is caused by a defect in this organelle...

lysosome

The genes in this organelle are usually only inherited from the mother...

mitochondria

arise from blood-forming organs

leukemias

a cancer of the lymphatic tissue

lymphomas

arise from epithelial cells

carcinomas

arise from melanocytes, pigmented cells in the skin

melanomas

arise from muscle cells or connective tissues

sarcomas

anticodons are found on mRNA, but not tRNA

false

There are about 200 different cell types in the human body.

true

Cells are different because different cells contain different genes

false

Because elephants are larger, they have larger liver cells.

false

The glycocalix is always located on the cytoplasmic surface of plasma cell membranes.

false

programed cell death is called apoptosis

true

A spherical cell with a radius of 8um has a higher surface volume ratio than a spherical cell with a radius of 4um

false

If a nucleus is not seen in a cell of a prepared slide of sectioned tissue, it means that cell does not have a nucleus.

false

With respect to membrane orientation, the inside surface of the membrane of a vesicle is analogous to the outside surface of a cell.

true

Transmembrane proteins can act as channels or transporters

true

The membrane potential is negative on the outside membrane surface region relative to the inside membrane surface region.

false

Human sex cells (eggs and sperm) have half the number of chromosomes as other human cells in the body.

true

Proteins made on ribosomes bound to the cytoplasmic surface of the endoplasmic reticulum are destined for the cytoplasm whereas proteins made on free ribosomes will be found within vesicles, several organelles, membranes, or secretion products of the cell

false

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