Chapter 12 Study Guide

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FDR (Franklin Delano Roosevelt)

A distant relative of Theodore Roosevelt, he served as assistant secretary of the navy under Woodrow Wilson, ran unsuccessfully as president in 1920 and was governor of New York in 1929. He also suffered a stroke which his wife helped him recover from.

1932 Election

Won by Roosevelt because people blamed Hoover for Great Depression. Roosevelt compared the average worker to the 'Forgotten man' Hoover gave warnings of what he thought would happen if Roosevelt won.

Fireside Chats

Roosevelt comforted people over the radio. Wanted to sound personal like he was in your living room.

Eleanor Roosevelt

Roosevelt's wife, helped Franklin survive, wrote her own newspaper "My Day" and helped with the Bonus Army.

FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Cooperation)

provided assurance that if banks collapsed the government would refund the money.

Hundred Days

Critical period of government activity for: relief, recovery and reform.

New Deal

Plan by Roosevelt which aimed to provide relief, recovery and reforms.

CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps)

paid people to work on conservation projects.

AAA (Agricultural Adjustment Act)

gave farmers a subsidy to grow fewer crops.

NIRA (National Industrial Recovery Act)

mandated that businesses even out prices and production

PWA (Public works administration)

was alloted $3.3 billion for pubic works programs

SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission)

Increased government regulation of stock trading.

TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority)

Promoted development of projects on the Tennessee River.

CWA (Civil Works Administration)

Provided public-works jobs for the jobless.

(Huey P.) Long

Believed Roosevelt

(Charles) Coughlin

A 'radio priest' didn't think the president was doing enough to curb the banker and financial leader's power.

(Francis) Townsend

Criticized the New Deal for not doing enough for older Americans.

Supreme Court

The court didn't like how Roosevelt was making himself more powerful and sought to balance the powers.

WPA (Works Progress Administration)

employed 8.5 million Americans at a cost of $11 billion. "You worked, you got a paycheck and you had some dignity."

Social Security

Paid retired 65 or older regularly and people who had lost their jobs as they looked for work. An attack to undermine Dr. Francis. In the end only as segment of the population benefited.

NLRB (National Labor Relations Board)

Was set up by the Wagner or National Labor Relations Act to outlaw antilabor practices.

(John L.) Lewis

Head of United Mine Workers, Part of Congress of Industrial Organizations. Popularized sit-down strikes.

REA (Rural Electrification Act)

Gave money to companies to bring electricity to people outside cities. Rural electricity went from 10 to %90

1936 Election

Roosevelt vs Alf Landon, Roosevelt campaigned based on his achievements and the hope he gave people. Landon attacked Roosevelt's New Deal from planing the economy.

Deficit

When the government spends more money then it earns.

(John Maynard) Keynes

argued that deficit spending could provide jobs and stimulate the economy.

(Frances) Perkins

Secretary of Labor and the first woman head of an executive department. She had a big role in Social Security.

(Mary McCleod) Bethune

Led the 'Black Cabinet' and was the director f Negro Affairs in the National Youth Administration.

(Dorothea) Lange

photographer for the FSA during the depression.

(Frank) Capra

Captured the spirit of the times in his films but also kept them comedic.

(Walt) Disney

created the first full-length animated films.

(H.G.) Wells

Wrote The War of the Worlds which Orson Welles made a radio broadcast out of and, in October 1938, frightened America.

Swing

highly orchestrated Jazz and tended towards big bands. The artists danced to their own music.

(Joe) Louis

Heavyweight fighter, came to represent the fight between Germany and the US.

(Marian) Anderson

Was a singer, went to Europe so she could build her reputation then in the US she couldn't sing at Constitution hall because of her race. Because of this Elenore Roosevelt arranged for her to hold a concert on the steps on the Lincoln memorial.

FSLA (Fair Labor Standards Act)

established the minimum wage law.

1938 Election

Roosevelt tried to defeat his opponents and it backfired.

(Walter) George

Was targeted my Roosevelt, he compared the president's attempts to influence the election to the US Army's occupation of the south after the Civil War.

Europe

Appeared to be marching towards another war which eventually brought about an end to the Great Depression.

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