Chemistry Chapter 4

33 terms by Benton_K 

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Solution

homogeneous mixtures of two or more pure substances

the ____ is dissolved in the ____

solute, solvent

Dissociation

Ionic substance dissolves in water, the solvent pulls the individual ions from the solid

Electrolytes

ionic substances dissolved in water and conducts electricity

A non-electrolyte does____

not dissociate into ions when dissolved in water and does not conduct electricity

A strong electrolyte___

dissociates almost completely

A weak electrolyte____

dissociates impartially

strong acids and strong bases make ___

strong electrolytes

soluble ionic compounds are also called

salts

salts are ___

strong electrolytes

compounds containing NO₃⁻

soluble

compounds containing C₂H₃O₂⁻

soluble

compounds containing Cl⁻

soluble except compounds of Ag⁺, Hg₂²⁺, and Pb²⁺

compounds containing Br⁻

soluble except compounds of Ag⁺, Hg₂²⁺, and Pb²⁺

compounds containing I⁻

soluble except compounds of Ag⁺, Hg₂²⁺, and Pb²⁺

compounds containing SO₄²⁻

soluble except compounds of Sr²⁺, Ba²⁺, Hg₂²⁺, and Pb²⁺

compounds containing S²⁻

insoluble except compounds of NH⁴⁺, the alkali metal cations, and Ca²⁺, Sr²⁺, and Ba²⁺

compounds containing CO₃²⁻

insoluble except compounds of NH⁴⁺, and the alkali metal cations

compounds containing PO₄³⁻

insoluble except compounds of NH⁴⁺, and the alkali metal cations

compounds containing OH⁻

insoluble except compounds of the alkali metal cations, and NH₄⁺, Ca²⁺, Sr²⁺, and Ba²⁺

the seven strong acids

HCl, HBr, HI, HClO₃, HClO₄, HNO₃, H₂SO₄

the 8 strong bases

LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, CsOH, Ca(OH)₂, Sr(OH)₂, Ba(OH)₂

complete equation

molecular equation

complete ionic equation

the strong electrolytes are written as ions

if every ion in a complete ionic equation is a spectator,

then no reaction occurs

Arrhenius defined acids as

substances that increase the concentration of H⁺ when dissolved in water

Bronsted and Lowry defined acids as

proton donors

Arrhenius defined bases as

substances that increase the concentration of OH⁻ when dissolved in water

Bronsted and Lowery defined bases as

proton acceptors

is water a good conductor?

no

when molecular compounds dissolve in water, only a limited number of ions are formed, and does not conduct electricty, except

NH₃(g) reacts with water to form NH₄⁺ and OH⁻ and HCl(g) forms H⁺(aq) and Cl⁻(aq)

weak acids use a ___ arrow

double

a substance with a solubility of less than 0.01 mol/L is regarded as being

insoluble

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