Chapter 1: The Flowering Seed Plants & Chapter 2: The Stucture and Function of Flowers

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Review of Chapters 1 and 2 (The Review Sections of each chapter) located on Pgs. 18 & 32

Biology

The study of living things

Botany

The study of plants

Zoology, Human Anatomy and Physiology, and Botany

The three broad divisions of biology

Man is totally dependent on plants, directly or indirectly, for food; plants and plant products are also essential in medicine and industry

The Importance of Plants

Trees, shrubs, vines, and herbs (woody and herbaceous)

How land plants may be grouped according to the size and type of the stem

Taproot and Fibrous

The two main kinds of root systems

Annuals: One growing season; Biennials: Two growing seasons; Perennials: Live year to year and bloom each season

The difference between annuals, biennials, and perennials

Wheat, corn, and rice

The three most important cereal crops

Opposite, alternate, whorled, rosette

Four ways in which leaves may be arranged on a stem

Structural tissue, vascular tissue, meristematic tissue

The three main types of plant tissue

Epidermal, cork, parenchyma, support and strengthening tissue

Four types of structural tissue

Xylem, phloem

Two types of vascular tissue

Cambium

One of the most important types of meristematic tissue

Parallel, pinnate, palmate

Three types of venation

Cell membrane and cell wall

The parts of a plant cell that separate its contents from surrounding environment

Nucleus

The part of a plant that controls the cell's activities

Chloroplasts

The structures in a plant cell that carry out photosynthesis

Tendrils, spines or insect trapping leaves

Two examples of specials leaves

Biology

The study of living things

Organisms

Living things

Habitat

Regions where particular organisms normally live

Botany

The study of plants

Zoology

The study of animals

Woody Plants

A plant having hard lignified tissues or woody parts especially stems

Herbaceous Plant

A plant lacking a permanent woody stem

Angiosperm

Flowering seed plants

Legume

Member of the Pea Family

Nitrogen-fixing Bacteria

Converts nitrogen from ammonia into nitrates

Denitrifying Bacteria

Convert unused nitrates back into the atmosphere

Nitrifying Bacteria

Provides nitrates to the soil from decomposing plants and animals

Dicot

Two cotyledons per seed

Monocot

One cotyledon per seed

Cereals

Man developed grasses

Forage Grasses

Grasses livestock is raised on

Turf Grasses

Grass that covers lawns, athletic fields, golf courses, and playgrounds

Stolon

A creeping stem that grows above the ground

Sheath

The area in which the plant grows from

Hardwood

Dense, hard wood

Deciduous

Able to lose their leaves in fall

System

group of structures designed to function together as a unit to perform a particular job for an organism

Organ

A structure within a system which has a definite form and performs a definite function or functions for the system

Tissue

Living material which is constructed in such a way as to perform a particular task for the organs of an organism.

Root System

Underground, anchoring the plant, functions in the absorption of nutrients and storage of food

Shoot System

Above ground, holds up leaves towards the sun for manufacturing food, and providing for the production of flowers, fruits, and seeds.

Blade

Flat, green portion of a leaf

Petiole

Leafstalk

Midrib

Major Vein

Leaflet

Each small blade on a compound leaf

Nodes

Point at which leaves grow from the stem.

Xylem

Transports water and dissolved minerals upward from the roots to the leaves

Phloem

Transports food manufactured on the leaves downward

Sap

Sweet liquid found within the vascular tissue of plants

Vascular Cambium

Produces new vascular tissue

Cork Cambium

Produces new cork tissue

Stomata

The lower epidermis of leaves

Guard Cells

Expand and contract in order to open and close each stoma

Leaf Hairs

The hairlike structure covering the epidermis

Transpiration

The passage of water through a plant from the roots through the vascular system to the atmosphere

Mesophyll

The place where most of the photosynthesis takes place, middle portion of the leaf

Venation

The pattern of the veins within leaves

Cell

The basic structural unit of all living things

Cytoplasm

Serves as fluid for the many molecules and organelles

Organelles

Little organs that make up the cell

Chloroplasts

Use the light of the sun to manufacture food

Chlorophyll

The green pigment which gives plants their color and enables them to capture the energy of the sun

Autotroph

Producers

Heterotroph

Consumers

Photosynthesis

The process whereby a plant's chloroplasts capture the radiant energy of sunlight and convert it into the chemical energy of food is called photosynthesis

Glucose

A simple sugar

Sucrose

Table sugar

Cellulose

A complex carbohydrate made up of long chain of glucose molecules

Starch

A long, chain-like molecule consisting of thousands of glucose molecules linked together

Cellular Reparation

Plant cells obtain energy by oxidizing sugars, or combining them with oxygen in a chemical reaction roughly comparable to burning.

Abscission Layer

Cuts leaves from the stem

Turgor Pressure

The water within guard cells

Wilting

Occurs when there is a high rate of transpiration

Sepals

Leaf-like structures attached to the edge of the receptacle

Petals

The most conspicuous part of the flower

Corolla

The petals

Stamen

The organs that produce the pollen

Filament

A slender, elongated stalk

Anther

An enlarger structure at the tip of the filament; produces pollen

Pollen

Contains sperm for the flower

Pistil and Ovary

The central structure in a flower; the swollen base of a pistil

Style and Stigma

The stalklike structure that connects the ovary to the tip of the pistil; Part of the flower which receives the pollen grains at the time of pollination

Bracts

The bright red leaved that appear to be petals; special leaves

Inflorescence

Clusters of flowers

Photoperiodism

When plants require a definite period of light and darkness before they will flower

Horticulturist

agriculture technician

Fruit

Fully ripened ovary

Pollination

The transfer of pollen

Hybrid

Cross-pollination that occurs between two plants of different kinds

Nectar

sweet-tasting, watery liquid produced by plants

Fertilization

When the ovules begin developing into seeds only after a sperm cell brought by pollen grain fuses with the egg cell within the ovule.

Sexual Reproduction

When sperm and egg unite

Legume

Simple fruits that consist of a pod enclosing several seeds

Bran

Shell-like fruit covering that can be removed only by milling

Chaff

Also called husk, can be removed easily

Germination

The sprouting of a seed

Dormancy

A period of inactivity

Endosperm

Makes 85% of the kernel; is used in making white flour

Help plants reproduce after their kind by forming reproductive cells; produce fruits and seeds

The Purpose of Flowers

Manufacture food for the plant by means of photosynthesis

The Purpose of Leaves

Hold up the plant's leaves and flowers

The Purpose of Steams

Anchors the plant to the soil, absorbs water and minerals and stores food

The Purpose of Roots

Ordinary leaves have petioles, whereas sessile leaves do not

How are sessile leaves different from ordinary leaves?

Simple leaves have only one blade per petiole; compound leaves have more than one blade per patiole

How are simple leaves different from compound leaves?

To protect and waterproof the stem

What is the purpose of cork tissue?

To make and store food

What is the purpose of parenchyma tissue?

Xylem tissue transports water and minerals upward to the leaves; phloem tissue transport food manufactured down to the rest of the plant

Explain the function of xylem and phloem tissue

To provide covering and protection for both the upper and lower leaf surfaces

Explain the purpose of a leaf's epidermis

The veins contain the vascular tissue and transport food, sap and minerals throughout the leaf.

What is the purpose of leaf veins?

To store food materials, fluid substances, and minerals

State the purpose of vacuoles

When the abscission layer forms, the chlorophyll in the leaf begins to deteriorate, allowing other pigments that had previously been hidden by the chlorophyll become visible

What causes leaves to turn different colors in autumn?

When water is being lost faster than it can be replenished, the guard cells lose turgor pressure and close the stomata. This reduces the rate of transpiration and water loss, helping to conserve water

How do guard cells help conserve water

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