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Hermel Vaccine Immunity

features of effective vaccines

safe, protective, sustainted protection, induces neutralizing antibodies or t cells, practical,

what does an effective vaccination program provide

herd immunity

what is herd immunity

protection is conferred on the unvaccinated in a population when a certain threshold number of individuals is vaccinated

what is passive immunization

new new immune response, immediate protection, no memory or secondary response. Temporary, uses preformed immune components, used reactively, occurs naturally with maternal antibodies

what is active immunization

delayed protection, memory, secondary response, permanent, used proactively, occurs naturally with infection

what is hemolytic disease of a newborn treated with

passive immuniztion with anti-Rh-IgG

what diseases are protected against by live attenuated viruses

smallpox, measles, mumps, rubells

what diseases are protected against by killed vaccines

influenze

what diseases are protected against by subunit or recombinant vaccines

hep a and b, h. influenzae type b

what diseases are protected against by toxoids

tetanus

what do adjuvants do

increase the efficay of vaccines

what does alum do

turns proteins into particles to make them easier to phagocytize. The only adjuvant approved for use in humans, activates inflammatory immune responses (esp. IL1)

want does vaccination with the cowpox virus do

elicits neutralizing antibodies that cross react with antigens of the small pox virus

what is a toxoid

a toxin that has been modified to be immunogenic but no longer toxic

explain live attenuated vaccines

contain replication competent but avirulent viruses.

what are contraindication of attenuated vaccines

must not be used in pregnant or immunocompromised individuals

what are conjugate vaccines

a carrier hapten reaction.

give an example of conjugate vaccines

protein polysaccharide conjugate vaccines against hemophilus influenza type b.

what is an example and mode of a post exposure vaccine

rabies, immune serum plus vaccine

give an example of cancer vaccination

hbv (hepatocellular carcinoma) and hpv

what is the greatest risk of common adverse events with vaccines

active disease in immunocompromised patients with live virus vaccines

what are other common adverse events with vaccines

fever in 5-50% of pts. Pain and swelling. Anaphylaxis esp to egg proteins. Encepholopathy, convulsions, benign ITP, febrile seizures

what is a risk of mmr and dpt

increased risk of febrile seizures although not associated with any long term adverse consequences

what kind of mercury is in thimerosol

ethyl mercury

what happens to incidence of vaccine goes down

incidence of disease goes up

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