a membrane that separates the cell interior from the outside world and controls the movement of materials into and out of the cell.
A gel-like material consisting mostly of water that contains dissolved materials and creates the chemical environment in which the other cell structures work
The command centre of the cell that contains the DNA blueprints for making proteins and is surrounded by a double membrane to protect the DNA from potentially damaging byproducts of biochemical reactions
uncoiled chromosomes (DNA)
tiny structures found throughout the cytoplasm that help put together proteins
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
a "transportation" system within the cell of flattened membrane-bound sacs and tubes that has two types of membrane: rough, and smooth ER
studded with ribosomes and synthesizes proteins
sytnthesizes prospholipids and packages macromolecules in vesicles for transport to other parts of the cell.
a stack of flattened membrane-bound sacs that RECEIVE vesicles from the ER, contains enzymes for modifying proteins and lipids, package finished products into vesicles for transport to the cell membrane (for secretion through exocytosis) and within the cell as lysosomes.
the powerhosue of the cell where organic molecules, usually carbohydrates, are broken down inside a double membrane to release energy and transfer it to ATP
a membrane-bound vesicle containing enzymes that can break down worn-out cell components or materials.
a large membrane-bound, fluid-filled sac for the temporary storage of food, water or waste products
A plastid (organelle used to synthesize or store food) that gives green plants their colour and transfers the energy in sunlight into stored energy in carbohydrates during photosynthesis.
Central vacuole (Plant)
a very large membrane-bound fluid-filled storage sac that gives added internal support to a plant cell and contains toxic molecules along with storage molecules.
Cells that are larger and have a more complex internal structure that includes a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
Small cells that have a simple internal organization and lack a nucleus and lack membrane-bound organelles.
A specialized area of chromatin inside the nucleus where ribosomal RNA is produced to make ribosomes.
long, hairlike projections extending from the cell membrane that propel the cell using a whiplike motion