a group that seeks to elect candidates to public office
The sence of being a party member
and the inclination to vote the party ticket are greater in France england and sweeden then they are in the united states.
why are parties in the united states relitivly week?
The laws and rules in which they opperate have taken away much of their power . Many voters have lost their sence of party identification . ( Because of decentralization parties can be strong in some places i.e. dems in NY and week in others)
three political arenas in which parties are found
a. a label in the minds of the voters. " a brand name" b. as an orginization that recruits and campaigns for candidates. c. and a set of of leaaders who try to orginize and controle the legislative and executive branch of government ( american parties have become weekened in all three arenas)
In Europe how does a person become a candidate
Olmost the only way that a person can become a candidate for elective office to to be nominated by a party leader. Campaighns are run by the party ( using party funds and workers , not by the canddate) The crinciple critera in which voters choose amoung candidates is their party identification.(however recintly party loyalty has been declining)
what explaines the differences between american and europian poltical parties?
a. American parties - there is a lot of power on the local level , representatives of the local coalitions come together and make decisions. In Europe, things are different: candidates are elected by party leaders, elected officials should vote in favor of what the party wants, and the party runs the campaign, not the candidate. The difference is because of the decentralization of gov&#039;t in America, since power is not held on a national level and national parties are basically coalitions of local parties; though lately, American gov&#039;t has become more nationalized—the federal gov&#039;t, not the state ones, makes the decisions on schooling and welfare, issues that affect people&#039;s lives and once were made by local governments. However, political parties have become more decentralized, since in the U.S., state and federal laws regulate how political parties function: the public selects candidates to run for office in election primaries (in Europe, the parties do that); and the party that wins control of Congress does not, as it does in European nations, control the right to select the chief executive of the gov&#039;t. if an american political party wins controle of the congress it does not not have the right to select the cheif executive of the gov. ( the pres)
political parties - roles in the life of the citizen?
In America, political parties rarely play an important role in the lives of citizens, whereas in Europe, "joining" a party means paying dues, attending regular meetings, and going to party-sponsored groups like labor unions, youth groups, educational programs, and even chess clubs.
The four stages of political parties
In the beginning of America, there were no political parties, but later, they formed, became very powerful, and then weakened due to reform, and that's where they are today.Four broad periods showing this are: creation of parties (1820s); two-party system emerges (Andrew Jackson's presidency to Civil War); parties developed comprehensive organizational form and became popular (Civil War to 1930s); reform weakens parties (New Deal to today).
Founding fathers perspective on parties
The Founding Fathers thought parties were bad and called them harmful factions; George Washington even warned of the dangers of political factions in his Farewell Address.
what was the first political party?
The first organized parties were there Jeffersonian Republicans (today's Democrats) and the Hamiltonian Federalists, loose caucuses of political notables.
who was fed? who was Jefferson Republic?
New England tended to be strongly Federalists while the South tended to be Jeffersonian Republican.
wht lead to the extinction of the fedral party?
After Jefferson won the presidency, Federalists feared that he would dismantle all the things that Federalists had done, but Tom instead adopted a policy in which he eventually incorporated many of the Federalists ideas, thus leading to the decline and eventual extinction of the Federalist Party.
From Madison's presidency to past Monroe's, there was virtually only one party standing—the Jeffersonian Republicans, just as Jefferson had hoped, and during this time, differences in party opinions did not fall on economic lines, but rather, more geographical ones.
second party system. In around 1824, Andrew Jackson made his first run for presidency; a decade later, voting requirements had been so stripped that all white males could vote, bringing the total number of voters from 365,000 in 1824 to over 2 million in 1840As time went one, presidential electors were also increasingly chosen by the popular vote rather than by state legislatures. .
a group of chosen representatives chose a "qualified" candidate, was ended in 1824 . it was not representive of the popular vote.
the party convention
where more people could participate then the coucus sytem;The Anti-Masonic Party held the first convention in 1831, while the first one from a major party was of the anti-Jackson Republicans later that year. It was created as a reform in attemps of allowing some measure of local controle in teh nominating process.
-After the split over slavery, Whigs and Democrats tried to saddle the issue, but this could not be done, and thus, a new part against slavery emerged: the Republican Party. . -Republicans tended to be Northern and anti-slavery, while Democrats tended to be Southern and pro-slavery, but while Republicans tended to win the presidency and the Senate, they often lost the House of Representatives.
William Jennings Bryan
A presedencial candidate that confermed the split the Democrats from the South to the West. and the rebulicans ( who were not for him in the northeastern states)As a result, states tended to be one-party states, and competition went down to the state level
Two majore fractions within each party
In the Republican Party, there emerged the Stalwarts, who were professional politicians, called the "Old Guard," built up party loyalty, and were skilled in organization, negotiation, bargaining, and compromise; and the mugwumps (aka progressives), who wanted to reform politics, disliked party machinery, and wanted to see the party take unpopular stances on issues like free trade.
began to attack corruption in big business, and big gov't,They wanted more voting rights, stricter voting regulations to reduce voting fraud, nonpartisan elections, primary elections, and civil-service reform to eliminate patronage. Began to curtail political parties, non partisian electons -In California, progressives found success in Governor Hiram Johnson, who adopted procedures called initiative and referendum so that citizens could vote directly on proposed legislationThese reformists lowered gov't and political corruption but also weakened political parties, and thus, indirectly lowered the odds of having good, qualified, intelligent candidates. ( if thier is not a strong political party , by what other means will candidates for office be found , recruted and supported?).
Critical or realigning periods
periods when a majore , lasting shift uccors in the popular coaliion supporting one or both parties. Realighnments are very rare and ussually occur as a reasult of some majore tramatic event( economic drepression and war) two things can happen a. the party can stop to exist ( fedralists , whigs ) or voters can shoft their loyalty ( 1932- to the dems bc of deppression)
The three clearest realigning periods
1860, the existibg parties could no longer agree on the slavery issue. 1896- eonomic issues a depression fell hard on the midwest and on part of the south - lead to teh formation of the greenbackers and the populasts , 1932- the economic depression not preceded by a third party movemnt demecarates now became the majority as a reasult of the lured immigrant urban workers.
federal, state, local goverments
In today's governments, each level of gov't (federal, state, local) exists on its own, with little or no organization, and all are practically independent of each other.
Simularities between the two parties
Democratic and Republican parties do look alike, since both have national conventions that meet every four years to choose a presidential candidate, national committees that manage party affairs in between elections, and congressional campaign committees that help their members of Congress running for re-election, and national chairmen who manage the day-to-day work of the parties.
fractinilized and buricratic parties
In the 1960s and the 70s, Democrats became a factionalized party while Republicans became a bureaucratized one, and after Republicans won four of the five presidential elections from 1968 to 1984, Democrats decided that the Rep. way of doing things was better and emulated them.The Republicans had used computerized mailings to build up huge files of people who had donated money to the party and used that list to make a big budget for itself. In 1983, the Republican National Committee (RNC) raised $35 million from over 1.7 individual donors, and by 1994, the RNC, Senate Committee, and Congressional Committee had raised $246 million from 2.8 million donors. RNC money also goes to taking polls to see what the people are concerned about.
Party conventions are chosen, and then the place has to be selected; for years, Democrats and Republicans have been split over where to put a convention, since the area near the convention is likely to have its opinions addressed more solidly, since more people there can go to the conventions. The Democrats have been split between South and West/North while Republicans are befuddled between East and South/Southwest,The way people who attend these conventions are chosen is very complex, but the Democrats have recently tried to make the field more diverse and equally representative of minority groups, etc...
part leaders and elected officials who become deligates to the natinal convention with out having to run in primary coucauses.