The religion of the Enlightenment (1700s). Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws. Denied that God communicated to man or in any way influenced his life.
Christian doctrine that stresses individual freedom of belief and rejects the Trinity. Believed in free will
The ethical system stating that all people should uphold certain values, such as honesty and other values that society needs to function.
Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.
Charles Grandison Finney
An evangelist who was one of the greatest preachers of all time (spoke in New York City). He also made the "anxious bench" for sinners to pray and was was against slavery and alcohol.
First college to teach women and African Americans
church founded by Joseph Smith in 1830 with headquarters in Salt Lake City, Utah, religious group that emphasized moderation, saving, hard work, and risk-taking; moved from IL to Utah
Joseph Smith, Jr.
Organized the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Claimed he had a vision of God declaring specific tenets of Christianity to be abominations. These claims and the practice of polygamy caused the Mormons to be shunned. They eventually settled near Salt Lake City.
The Mormons were persecuted and so, they migrated west along the Oregon Trail. Led by Brigham Young, the Mormons moved to the western states such as Nebraska, Wyoming, across the Rockies, and to the SW. They settled near the Great Salt Lake, which is now Utah.
United States religious leader of the Mormon Church after the assassination of Joseph Smith. Led the Mormon Migration to Utah
a movement in literature and art during the late 18th and early 19th centuries that celebrated nature rather than civilization
a nineteenth-century movement in the Romantic tradition, which held that every individual can reach ultimate truths through spiritual intuition, which transcends reason and sensory experience.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
United States writer and leading exponent of transcendentalism (1803-1882)
Henry David Thoreau
American transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery. He wrote down his beliefs in Walden. He started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax to support him Mexican War.
United States writer of novels and short stories mostly on moral themes (1804-1864). Wrote The Scarlet Letter
a poet and a recluse who resided in Amherst, MA. Only 2 of her almost 1800 poems were published before her death. She was the most original and powerful New England poet. She focused her writings on her own shifting psychological state
Edgar Allen Poe
(1809-1849). Orphaned at young age. Was an American poet, short-story writer, editor and literary critic, and is considered part of the American Romantic Movement. Best known for his tales of mystery and the macabre. Wrote the Raven
American writer whose experiences at sea provided the factual basis of Moby-Dick (1851), considered among the greatest American novels
American poet and transcendentalist who was famous for his beliefs on nature, as demonstrated in his book, Leaves of Grass. He was therefore an important part for the buildup of American literature and breaking the traditional rhyme method in writing poetry.
Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, he was a prominent proponent of public school reform, and set the standard for public schools throughout the nation.
campaign to limit or ban the use of alcoholic beverages
Dorothea Lynde Dix
Superintendent of Nurses. Her task was to organize a corps of female nurses
"Cult of Domesticity"
the ideal woman was seen as a tender, self-sacrificing caregiver who provided a nest for her children and a peaceful refuge for her husband, social customs that restricted women to caring for the house
Quaker activist in both the abolitionist and women's movements; with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, she was a principal organizer of the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A prominent advocate of women's rights, Stanton organized the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention with Lucretia Mott
Seneca Falls Convention
Took place in upperstate New York in 1848. Women of all ages and even some men went to discuss the rights and conditions of women. There, they wrote the Declaration of Sentiments, which among other things, tried to get women the right to vote. "All men and women are created equal."
Susan B. Anthony
social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation
American religious sect devoted to the teachings of Ann Lee Stanley, prohibited marriage and sexual relationships
A group of socio-religious perfectionists who lived in New York. Practiced polygamy, communal property, and communal raising of children.
This was a society that focusted on Utopian Socialism (Communism). It was started by Robert Owens but failed because everybody did not share a fair load of the work.
utopian society established by transcendentalist George Ripley near Boston in 1841; members shared equally in farm work and leisure discussions of literature and art. Author Nathaniel Hawthorne and others become disenchanted with the experiment, and it collapsed after a fire in 1847.