Principle of Allocation
Each organism has limited amount of energy and each organism allocates their energy for essential life activities. Ex. Homeostasis, Reproduction
Internal regulation in order to maintain homeostasis.
Anatomical regulations; Some are gradual over generations some are immediate and irreversible.
Fixed Action Pattern
Unchangeable, instinctual behavioral sequences. Once started always carried through completion. Allows for activities to be performed correctly the first time.
Learning limited to a specific time period or critical period; Often is irreversible. Ex. Lorenz Ducks, Birds song (copy), Bats offspring scent.
Trial and Error
Ability to respond to new situations without prior experience. Most often seen in primates.
Giving other animals human motivations, emotions and conscious awareness.
Conscious thinking, self awareness (many organisms do not know this), judgement and use of language.
Random movement. Can increase chance of finding and staying in appropriate environmental conditions.
Directed specific movement.
Movement toward or away water
Toward of away light
movement by a cell or organism in reaction to a chemical stimulus
toward or away current (helps with finding food)
Movement of organisms to find access to food.
Cues in migration including landmarks, UV light, stars and magnetic fields.
Organisms must be able to recognize their food source. They use Search Image and Optimal Foraging.
Easy recognition of favorable food source. Ex. McDonald's sign
Yields maximum benefit with minimum effort. Ex. Bears and Salmon, Drive-thru at McDonald's.
Contests of strength, almost always done by males to compete for a mate (not fighting to the death)
"Pecking Order", the rank within the group. (Alfa Male/Alfa female)
A chemical released outside the body to communicate within the same species.
used by Bees to communicate the distance and direction to food.
Giving up something of yours for the benefit of others.
Organisms of the same species living in thoe same place at the same time. Ex. White tail deer at Hoffmaster, Mice in the HS
Practical Goals of Population Ecology
Management of Populations.
1. Increase in population size
2. Decrease Population Size
3. Maintain Population Size
Characterizing/ Description of Population
Range (Where in location); Pattern of Spacing (Clumped of Spread out); Size and density (How many, Amount of area to amount of people)
Smaller organisms feed the bigger ones.
Population Density Formula
# Marked (First Catch) x # Second Catch/ # Marked recaptures
Pattern of spacing within a geographical area.
Organisms gathered near resources.
Evenly spaced; Plants in landscaping, some animals in nature.
Not common in nature
Short term; Single reproductive event; "One and Done" Ex. Salmon, Mayflies, Annual Flowers
Long term; Multiple reproductive events; Fewer offspring/ events; More energy allocated to long term survival. Ex. Kangaroos, Humans, Perennials
Rapid growth, unlimited resources, and also occurs with invasive species.
Reaches carrying capacity and levels off; Fluctuates across carrying capacity
Zero Population Growth
Same amount of deaths as there are births
K Selected Population Types
Equilibrial; Live @ or near carrying capacity; Long life span; Fewer offspring and many reproductive episodes. Often extensive parental care. (Iteroparity)
R Selected Population Types
Opportunistic; Population densities fluctuate with a shorter lifespan. Have many offspring and very few episodes. No parental care. (Semelparity)
Density Dependent Factors
Crowded conditions increase performance; Competeing for food and resources; Ex. Disease
Density Independent Factors
Affect population size, no matter how small. Things that cut populations numbers. Ex. Natural Disaster
The most specific description of how an organism fits into its environment
Competitive Exclusion Principle
No two species can occupy the same niche
Study of interactions among organisms of different species; community consists of all species in a given area.
The more diverse, the more successful and resilient, greater diversity offers more stability, more food and more habitats.
Composition of a Community
Dominant Species, Most abundant species or highest biomass, Keystone species and Change over time
An organism that has an influential ecological role; Exert important regulating effects on other species in a community; Increase biodiversity
Win-Win relationship; where both organisms benefit from one another. Ex. Cleaning fish
Win- "Who cares" relationship; One organism benefits while the other is unaffected. Ex Clown fish and anemone
Win-Lose Relationship; One organism benefits but the host is harmed though not often killed. Ex. Bed bugs, heart worms
Prey relationship- organisms feed on others in order to get energy
Show energy flow through trophic levels; Arrows always point toward the consumer
Shows more complex interactions of food chains with an ecosystem.
Weight of living material- declines with each trophic level
Predictable transition from one community to the other
Begins in a virtually lifeless area where there is no intact or est. soil. Ex. Glaciers
When a community has been cleared but the soil remains intact. Ex. after a fire, clear cutting
Northern most biome; No trees or plants with deep root system
Permanetly frozen ground is the distinguishing feature of the Tundra
South of the Taiga; Ground thaws completely; Dominated by cone bearing trees
Temperate Decidous Forest
Temperature changes and trees lose their leaves. South of the taiga; Tree lose their leaves before winter
Black, rich top soil from decaying leaves
Dominated by grasses; Either Savanna (tropical with wet and dry seasons) or Prairie (temperate with warm and cold seasons)
Less that 25 cm precipitation per year. Temperatures can vary; plants are opportunistic;
More than 200 cm of rain per year; Very tropical most biodiversity
Less than 1% salt; Includes Lakes, rivers and streams
Clear, and clean; Low nutrients; Few plants; High oxygen. Ex. Lake superior
Medium nutrients, oxygen and plants; Sandy bottom; Ex. Lake Michigan
Murky, high in nutrients, many plants and low in oxygen; Ex. Mona Lake
Lake turns dry or into a bog
Dead lake with no inflow or outflow
Speeding up of the aging of a lake by human activity. Ex. Fertilizer
1-3% salt (brackish); Mixture of fresh and salt water; Where a river meets an ocean. Ex. Everglades
More than 3% salt
In between high tide and low tide; Inhabitants must be able to survive extremes including; rip tide, waves and temperature changes.
From the edge of low tide to the drop off; Lots of ocean going fish, shallow. Ex. Coral reef
What we think of when we picture the ocean; after you hit the drop off; photic
Cold temperatures (4 C); aphotic, high pressure. Ex:Squid and Bioluminiscent organisms
Energy flows in ecosystems from producers to consumers; We can measure this energy flow by measuring the productivity of each trophic level.
Amount of light energy converted to chemical energy by plants
Gross Primary Productivity
Total P.P. but not all of this is available to consumers as the plant uses much of it for its own metabolism.
Net Primary Productivity
energy available to consumers after plant metabolism.