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Polythemia

Increase of red blood cells

Mean cell volume

Determines anemia

Hypochloremia

Low chlorine in blood

Hyperchloremia

High chlorine in blood

Normocytic/non chromic anemia

Excessive blood loss

Hypochromic or microcytic anemia

Decreased rbi and Hb common in blood loss,iron deficiency

Hypokalemia

Low potassium from diarrhea, stress

Positive antigen

Has been exposed to antigen

Negative antigen

No exposure to antigen

Bronchoscopy

Used to determine disease or biopsy

Male normal Hg

5 million

Normal female Hg

4 million

Macrocytic anemia

RBC are larger than normal

Hemoglobin

Most of O2 that diffused into pulmonary capillary blood moves into RBC and attaches to

Thoracentesis

Process where excessive fluid is aspirated through needle in chest wall and lungs

Open lung biopsy

Removes sample of tissue

Hyperkalemia

Excessive Potassium from renal failure or muscle tissue damage

Hypocalcemia

Vit d defficiency

Hypercalcemia

Excess Calcium from bone fractious or tumors

Complete blood cell count CBC

Test to determine ability to carry oxygen

Phagocytosis

Digestion of bacteria

Hematology tests for

RBC,WBC, platelets Hg,hematocrit

Eosinphills

Activated by allergies and patasites

Hyponatremia

Low sodium from sweating, burn,diuretics

Packed cell volume

Mat of RBC in 100 mL of blood

T cells

Are decreased when HIV becomes AIDS

WBC

Blood count to determine infection or inflammation

Granules

Eosinophilia,monocytes,basophils

Nongranular

Monocytes,leukocytes

Lateral

X Ray side view

Lateral decubitus

Xray of patient lyeing on side

Liver

Causes right side of chest to be higher

Prominent process

Notch on back of neck

AP

Front to back

Posterior to anterior and lateral

Standard xray views

Gray

Color on xray from soft tissue

Black

Color on xray showing air

White

Color on xray for bone or foreign object

Lordotic

When patient leans back for a better view of xray (praying position)

Oblique

Fatty corner like xray view of lateral and PA

Air trapping

An expiratory film is often taken to determine

Expiratory

Heart will appear enlarged

Collapsed lung

Xray showing all white blending into heart

Five

Cardiac notches

Elevated on xray Due to heart

Helium,hila

Monocytes

Second line of defense against organisms

Hypernatremia

Excess sodium cause from dehydration

Leukocytes

Fight infection, defend by phagocytosis,produce antibodies in immune response

Chloride

Most prominent anion

Potassium

Main cation of intracellular compartment

Neutrophils

First WBC to arrive at site of inflammation

Consilidation

White area or spot

Meniscus

Pleural effusion sign

PET

Test showing anatomic structure and metabolic activity of tissues and organs

Dark area

Radiolucent area

Infiltrate

White Spot on xray unknown

VQ scan

Gamma radiation from chest through pharmaceuticals injected or inhaled.Perfusion ventilation

Half a rib space

Rt side due to liver being higher due to diaphragm

Hillium

Left side is higher of the ... Due to the heart

Emphysema traits

Increase AP, blebs,wide intercostal space

Lordotic

Praying position

Bronchography

Radioopaque instilled into tracheobronchial tree and xray taken.Been replaced with cat scan

Cavity

Dark area surrounded by white dense tissue

Lateral decubitus

Lowing on side to measure fluid

Phagocytosis

Digestion of bacteria

Bronchoscopy

Uses fiberoptic scope with camera for inspection of trachea and bronchi

Carina

Trachea bifurcated at

Two

Et tube is placed .... Cm above carina

ARDS traits

Ground glass appearance

Pneumothorax traits

From lack of air an Absence of lung marking vertical line on pleura hyperinflation

Angiography

Use injected contrastvto detect pulmonary emboli

Five to ten thousand

Normal WBC count

Ground glass appearance

Represents alveolar filling at microscopic level ,hazy appearance

Sail sign

Thymus glands in anfants

Excess and low calcium

Hyper hypo calcemia

Excess and low potassium

Hyper and hypo kalemia

Excess and low sodium

Hyper hypo natremia

Excessive and low chlorine

Hyper hypo chloremia

Nongranular leukocytes

Monocytes lymphocytes

White blood count

Can determine between infection or inflammation

MRI

Uses magnetic imaging to take cross sectional images to detect further that a CT

Monocyte

Second cell to arrive at inflammation

Normal hemoglobin

Man 5 million women 4 million

Coin lesion

Indication of carcinoma

Butterfly or batwing

Sign of pulmonary edema with CHF

Aterlactesis

Fisher lines volume loss

Fluoroscopy

Takes xray motions to localize lesions to be biopsied

Ivory heart sign

LLL collapse

Pencilling/steepling

Airway nRrowing with croup

Lateral

Side view

Polythemia

Increase of RBC

Thumb sign

Seen with swollen epiglottis

Dark areas

Good blood flow in VQ scan

Elevated monocytes

Mean infection or inflammation

Increased CO2

Hypercapnia

Decreased CO2

Hypocapnia

Increased lymphocytes

Leukocytosis

Decreased wbc

Leukopenia

Air bronchogram

Normal air filled bronchus surrounded by lung tissue with increased density

Bronchogram

Pathway of black like tree branches where air is flowing

Bronchography

Shows view of trachea r and l bronchi.

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