contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction or by a semicolon- for example, "The singer bowed to the audience, but she sang no encores."
confirmation- the part of an argument in which the speaker or writer would offer proof or demonstration of a central idea.
the part of speech that serves to connect to words, phrases, clauses, or sentences. FANBOYS: For, And, But, Or, Yet, So.
that which is implied by a word, as opposed to the word's literal meaning (denotation)
the convergence of time, place, audience, and motivating factors in which a piece of writing or a speech is situated; or words, events, or circumstances that help determine meaning.
grammatical equivalence between parts of a sentence often through a coordinating conjunction such as "and" or "but"
(loose sentence)- an independent clause followed by subordinate clauses, or phrases that supply additional detail-for example. "i look forward to a great future in America, a future in which our country will match its military strength with our moral restraint, its wealth with our wisdom, its power with our purpose."- John F. Kennedy
facts. statistics, and examples that speaker/writer offers in support of a claim, generalization and conclusion.
a sentence that makes a statement-for example, "A banker is a person who will loan you his umbrella when the sun is shining but wants it back the minute it begins to rain." -Mark Twain
reasoning that begins with a general principle and concludes with a specific instance that demonstrates the general principle (general to specific)
the literal or dictionary definition of a word, in contrast to its connotation or implied meaning.
(subordinate Clause) because of a subordinating word that comes at the beginning of the clause, it is not a sentence and cannot stand alone-for example, "Your paper, which must be ten pages in length is due on Friday."
the describable patterns of language-grammar and vocabulary-used by a particular cultural or ethnic population
word choice frequently divided into four levels: formal (Academic Writing), informal (common in conversation), colloquial, and slang.
writing whose purpose is to instruct or teach; it is usually formal and focuses on moral or ethical concerns.
Either or Fallacy
arguing that a complex situation can simply be explained one of two ways; in Latin- Reductio ad Absurdum which literally means to "reduce to the absurd"
indicated by a series of three periods, it indicates that some material had been omitted from a given text. It could be a word, a phrase, a partial sentence, or a whole section
the repetition of a a group of words at the end of successive clauses-for example, "They say no evil, they spoke no evil, and they heard no evil"
a word or phrase adding a characteristic to a person's name-for example, "Richard the Lion-hearted"
a more acceptable and usually more pleasant way of saying something that might be inappropriate or uncomfortable-for example, "He went to his final reward" is a common euphemism for "he died". They are often used to obscure the reality of the situation.
provides emphasis or expressing strong emotion; generally begins with how or what-for example, "what a beautiful day!"
a shift in the narrative that interrupts the normal chronological development of the story.
writing or speech that is not intended to carry literal meaning and is usually meant to e imaginative and vivid.
Figure of Speech
an expression that strives for literary effect rather than conveying literal meaning. Include: apostrophe, hyperbole, irony metaphor, metonymy, oxymoron, paradox, personification, simile, synecdoche, and understatement.
a point that the speaker/ writer generates on the basis of considering a number of particular examples
a propaganda device which employs the use of a phrase that inspires strong feelings in the receiver.
making a unsound inductive inference based on insufficient, inadequate, and unspecified evidence.
a term literally meaning "sermon", but more informally, it can include any serious talk, speech, or lecture involving moral or spiritual advice.
exaggeration for the purpose of emphasis; it may also be ironic; the opposite of understatement.
The sensory details or figurative language used to describe, arouse emotion, or represent abstractions. On a physical level, __ uses terms related to the five senses; we refer to visual, auditory, tactile, gustatory, or olfactory. For example, a rose may present visual __ while also representing the color in a woman's cheeks.