Sociology- Exam Two

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Ascribed

Jane is a 49 year-old woman of Irish-German descent. What do these characteristics have in common?

Status Symbols

Signs that identify a position in society someones occupies are referred to as ________.

Master Status

A position in society that someone holds that cuts across other statuses they hold, such as being a high ranking Army officer, college president , or handicapped would be considered their _________.

Occupy a Status & To Play a Role

The difference between status and role is that _______.

Maintain traditional gender relationships.

Which of the following is not one of the five functional requisites that every society must fulfill to survive?

Organic Solidarity

According to Durkheim, when a society increases in size, its division of labor becomes more specialized. People begin to depend on one another and become interdependent.This form of social cohesion he termed _______.

Dramaturgy

An approach to social interaction in which social life is analyzed in terms of the stage is called _________.

Thomas Theorem

If people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences. This classic statement is known as the _______.

Gemeinschaft (Intimate Community) & Gesellschaft

Ferdinand Tonnies' term for the type of society he referred to as "the intimate community" was _______. The term he used to describe the type of society characterized by "impersonal association" was ______.

A group

In Professor Jones' social problems course the students interact freely with one another, think of themselves as "Dr.J's class," and feel they are significant because of their mutual interest in social reform. In view of this which concept best describes Dr.Jones' class?

Agricultural

The "dawn of civilization" is most associated with which social revolution?

Microchips & Decoding of human gene code system

The _____ is to the post industrial society as the ____ is to the emerging biotech society.

The transmition and use of information services dominated the workforce.

What is the key feature of post-industrial societies as it relates to the work force?

Category

There are New York Yankee fans in every state in America, throughout Canada, and in nations all over the world. Sociologically, which concept best describes these fans?

Primary

A group characterized by intimate, long-term, face-to-face association and cooperation is referred to as a _________.

Out-Groups

Kody is a member of the L.A. Crips. The other gangs in his territory are the Bloods and Satan's Slaves. For Kody, these two rival gangs would be considered _________.

Authoritarian Lead

Different situations require that different styles of leadership be used to meet the primary goals of the group. Imagine a tour group that is lost in the desert. Which type of leadership would be best for the tour guide to adopt.

Solomon Asch

Who conducted the classic experiment addressing the power of peer pressure that included six "stooges" and one actual test subject viewing cards with lines of varying length.

A substantial number of people will inflict pain on others in order to do so by a person in a position of authority.

What did Stanley Milgram's "teacher-learner" experiment demonstrate?

By giving free reign to diverse opinions.

How would an organization minimize group think from occurring?

Rationality

An approach to life in which there is an emphasis on rules, efficiency, and practical results is_______.

the past is the best guide for what should be done in the present.

What is the major emphasis of the traditional orientation to life?

Industrial and Post Industrial

In which two societies are people evaluated based on the "bottom line"?

Weber

The early theorist who proposed religious beliefs were the key to whether or not a society embraced capitalism was _____.

bureaucracy

Samantha works in a place that is hierarchical, has a division of labor, written rules, communications and records, and in which the administration treats workers impersonally. Based on these characteristics, we can conclude that Samantha works in a[n] ____.

Allienation

The experience of being cut off from the product of one's labor that results in a feeling of powerlessness is called ____.

Volunteert Associations

The Boy Scouts, the Veterans of Foreing Wars, most civic organization, and all other organizations that people join because of mutual interest are all examples of _____.

Iron Law of Oligarchy

The domination of organizations by a small, self-perpetuation elite is called ______.

Conflict

It is believed by some sociologist that attempts to huimanize the workplace are simply ways to manipulate workers into cooperationg in their own exploitation. This belief is most aligned with the ___ perspective.

small groups form primary relationships thereby reducing allienation

People work effectively in small groups and work teams than in a centralized command structure. What is the sociological explanation for this?

Crime

Violation of norms and rules that are written into law are officiallly called ____.

Not the act itself but the reaction of others to the act that makes it deviant.

The concept of the relativity of deviance is best illustrated by which of the following statements?

Degradation Ceremonies

Ritualistic procedures intended to humiliate norm violators and mark them as being moral outcast of the group to which they once belonged are called?

Harold Garfinkle

The term degradation ceremony was coined by sociologist ________.

They are from families that have history with crime.

Based on differential association theory, what is the most likely background shared by juvenile delinquents?

Labeling Theory

The significance of names or reputations given to people when they engage in certain types of behavior is the focus of ______ theory.

Strain Theory

The theory developed by Robert Merton is based on the idea that most people want to attain cultural goals, but not everyone has the legitimate means of achieving them is _______ theory.

An Innovator

John desires the best things in life.... a fast car, designer clothes, and memebership in exclusive clubs. But rather than work his way through the system, he has discovered he can have all these things by selling crack cocain in the inner city. How would Merton classify John?

Conflict Perspective

Sociologist who view law as an instrument of oppression and used to control workers are aligned most with which sociological perspective?

Marginal Working Class

How would conflict theorists classify migrant workers, seasonal employees, and members of the workfroce who are subject to layoffs?

Wealth Power Prestige

What are the three variables Mac Weber identified as defining social class?

Two

Based on the Marxist orientation of conflict sociologist, how many distinct social classes exist?

Both property owned and income made by the person less debts.

When used by sociologists, the term "wealth," refers to ______.

Petty Bougeriuse

Ruth owns the Head 2 Toe Boutique where she employs 15 workers. According to Erik Wright 's model of social class, Ruth would be classified as a[n]?

Education Power Property Prestige

What are the four variables Gilbert and Kahl used to develop a six-class model to reflect the class structure of the United States and other capitalist countries?

Inter-Generation Mobility

What is the upward or downward movement in social class by family members from one generation to the next?

Structural

Changes in society that cause large numbers of people to move up or down the class ladder which causes one class to increase while others decrease is called ______ mobility.

Race and Ethnicity

What is the strongest variable in developing correlations to which social groups are in poverty?

Children

The most likely segment of the population in the United States to experience poverty?

The South

What region of the United States has the highest cluttering of people in poverty?

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