Energy is not created nor destroyed.
Light energy to chemical energy.
Is used to make ATP.
These uses photosynthesis process:
Plant, bacteria and algae.
Is in the mitochondria.
The rate of breathing.
Define cellular respiration
It is an exergonic process that transfers energy from bonds in glucose to ATP.
Cellular Respiration produces
38 ATP molecules from each glucose molecule.
40% of energy from glucose:
Is used to make ATP.
60% of the energy from glucose:
Is given off as heat.
How is energy contained?
In the bonds of the organic fuels.
Electron bonds are:
Drawn to molecules with lower energy, to a more stable state.
How is energy captured?
In a series of reactions,each of which is catalyzed by enzymes.
How is the cellular respiration equation helpful?
To show the changes in electron distribution.
What happens when Glucose loses hydrogen atoms?
It is converted into CO2.
Is in the middle of the membrane.
Glucose is broken down to two pyruvates.
Where does glycolysis occur?
What are the three main stages of Cellular Respiration?
Glycolysis, the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation.
Citric acid cycle function:
Breaks down pyruvate into CO2 and electrons.
Where does the citric acid cycle occur?
Oxidation Phosphorylation Function:
The electrons are shuttled through the electron transport chain and ATP is generated.
Where does oxidation phosphorylation occur?
In the inner mitochondrion membrane.
The potential energy of concentration gradient is used to make ATP.
What are the three categories of cellular poisons that affect cellular respiration?
Blocks the electron transport chain, inhibits ATP synthase and membrane is leaky to hydrogen ions.
Is an anaerobic energy generating process.
Muscles cells,, bacteria can oxidize NADH through what?
Lactic acid fermentation.
Single celled fungi that not only can use respiration for energy but can ferment under anaerobic conditions.
Green House Effect
Energy that gets trapped in the Earth.
Don't need other living things and they make their own food.
What do plants produce?
O2 by splitting water.
Light energy is converted to chemical energy and stored in thr chemical bonds of sugar molecules.
Two Stages of photosynthesis:
Are linked by ATP and NADPH.
Where are light energy converted ?
In the thylakoid membranes to chemical energy and O2.
where is the calvin cycle?
In the stroma of the chloroplast.
Is the distance between the crest of two adjacent waves.
Is a fixed quantity of light energy and the shorter the wavelength, the greater the energy.
Chlorophyll A absorbs
Blue violet and red light and reflects green.
Chlorophyll B absorbs
Blue and orange and reflects yellow-green.
The enzyme take out of air and put into carbon fixation.
The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram.
An enzyme transfers a phosphate group from a substrate molecule directly to ADP, forming ATP.
The creation of genetically identical offspring by a single parent, without the participation of sperm and egg.
Structures that contain most of the organisms DNA.
Prokaryotes reproduce by a type of cell division.
Long thin fibers.
The mitotic, the part of the cell cycle when the cell actually divides, accounts for only 10% of the total time required for the cell cycle.
The cytoplasm is divided in two.
Cell's metabolic activity is very high and the cell performs its various functions within the organism.
The nucleus and its contents, including the duplicated chromosomes and divide and evenly distributed to form two daughter nuclei.
Types in Mitosis:
Interphase, Prophase, Prometaphase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase.
A shallow groove in the cell surface and first sign of cleavage.
A protein secreted by certain body cells that stimulates other cells to divide.
Cancer cells that originate in external or internal coverings of the body such as skin or lining of intestine.
Cancers of blood-forming tissues, such as bone marrow, spleen and lymph nodes.
Abnormal growing mass of body cells.
Total number of chromosomes.
Cell with one set of single chromosomes.
Collectively eggs and sperms.
Type of cell division that produces haploid gametes in diploid organisms.
Is a place where two homologous chromatids are attache each other.
The production of gene combinations different from those carried by the original chromosomes.
Chromatin fibers get more tightly coiled and folded, forming discrete chromosomes that can be seen with a light microscope.
The nuclear envelope breaks into fragments and disspears.
The mitotic spindle is formed and the chromosomes are lined on the metaphase plate.
Centromeres of each chromosome come apart, separating the sister chromatids.
The reverse of Prophase. At the end of this phase the mitotic spindle disappears and one nucleus into two genetically identical daughter nuclei.
How many stages are there in Interphase?
Three; G1, S and G2.
What happens after the G2 stage?
Mitotic phase takes place.
The sequence of stages leading from the adults of generation to the adults in the next.
How does NAD+ makes there cells?
The vitamin niacin and use to shuttle electrons in redox reactions.
NAD+ (+) 2H equals?
NADH + H+
Protein complexes built into inner membrane that synthesize ATP.
What happens when you reduce two molecules of NAD+?
Forms two molecules of NADH.
What happens after NADH is formed?
Two molecules of ATP is produced by substrate-level phosphorylation.