AP Chem: Ch. 1-4, 5, 24

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sigfigs, chemical reactions, nomenclature, gases, and some ochem too

alkynes

contain at least one triple bond

alkenes

contain at least one double bond

aliphatic, aromatic

the two types of hydrocarbons

saturated, unsaturated

the two types of aliphatic hydrocarbons

Cx, H2x+2

formula for the number of C's and H's in alkanes (good for isotopes)

multiple

in unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons, carbons have (single/multiple) bonds

single

in saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons, carbons have (single/multiple) bonds

meth

one carbon

eth

2 carbons (prefix)

prop

3 carbons (prefix)

but

4 carbons (prefix)

pent

5 carbons (prefix)

hex

6 carbons (prefix)

hept

7 carbons (prefix)

oct

8 carbons (prefix)

non

9 carbons (prefix)

deca

10 carbons (prefix)

all single bonds

the ending "ane" implies

at least one double bond

the ending "ene" implies

at least one triple bond

the ending "yne" implies

cyclo

a pre-prefix that implies there's a ring structure

yl

if an alkane is branched, we add this to the end of each component

acetate

CH3COO−

acetic acid

CH3COOH

formate

CHOO−

formic acid

HCOOH

halide

R-Cl, R-Br, R-F, and R-I are these

bromo, chloro, fluoro, iodo

halide prefixes

e to ol, propanol

alcohol naming; eg. propane

e to al, butanal

aldehyde naming; eg. butane

e to one, 2-butanone

ketone naming; eg. butane

e to oic acid, propanoic acid

carboxylic acid naming; eg. propane

prefix + ate

ester naming

oxygen

(ester naming) how to distinguish ate from prefix

name hydrocarbon groups + ether, methyl, ethyl, ether

ether naming; eg. CH3OCH2CH3

loses, raises, H, O

during oxidation, a substance ______ electrons and ________ its oxidation number through the electron carrier (O/H) or by adding (O/H)

carboxylic acid

aldehyde + (O) ->

ester + H2O

carboxylic acid + alcohol ->

manometer

a device that measures the pressure of a gas or liquid in a vessel

barometer

a device for measuring the pressure of the atmosphere

P = gdh

equation for a barometer (the relationship between the pressure P and the height h of a liquid column in a barometer or manometer)

gravity, density, height

what the "gdh" stand for in P=gdh

kg/m^3

density units for P=gdh

meter

height units for P=gdh

Yes

Will all liquids in a barometer exert the same pressure? (Y/N)

No, different density

Will all liquids have the same height in a barometer? (Y/N) + explanation

101.3 kPa = 1 atm = 760 mmHg

relate the units of pressure (kPa, atm, mmHg/torr)

P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2

Combined Gas Law equation

Boyle's

gas law with PV constant

Gay-Lussac

gas law with P/T constant

Charles's

gas law with V/T constant

PV

constant of Boyle's law

P/T

constant of the Gay-Lussac law

V/T

constant of Charles's law

Equal volumes of any two gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules.

state Avogadro's law

22.4 L/mol

at STP, the molar gas volume is (plus units)

partial pressure

the pressure exerted by a particular gas in a mixture

gas molecules are negligible in size compared to the distance between them, molecules move randomly in straight lines, the forces of attraction or repulsion (intermolecular forces) are negligible except when they collide, collisions are elastic, average kinetic energy is proportional to absolute temperature

state the five postulates, roughly, of the kinetic theory

root-mean-square

what rms (in rms molecular speed) stands for

rms molecular speed

a type of average molecular speed, equal to the speed of a molecule having the average molecular kinetic energy

(3RT/Mm)^0.5

formula for rms molecular speed

m/s

units of rms molecular speed

K, kg, m^2, mol, s^2,

SI units for R when applied to molecular speed (5)

effusion

the process by which a gas flows through a small hole in a container

Graham's law of effusion

The rate of effusion of gas molecules from a particular hole is inversely proportional to the square root of the molecular weight of the gas at constant temperature and pressure.

H

A substitution reaction is a reaction in which part of a reagent molecule is substituted for an ________ atom on a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon group.

carbon-carbon multiple bond, C-C single bond

An addition reaction is a reaction in which parts of a reagent are added to each carbon atom of a ___________, which then becomes a ____________.

Markownikoff's rule

states that the major product formed by the addition of an unsymmetrical reagent such as H-Cl, H-Br, or H-OH is the one obtained with the H atom of the reagent is added to the carbon atom of the multiple bond that has the most hydrogen atoms.

iso

this prefix means "split down the middle"

split down the middle

the prefix iso- means

saponification

hydrolysis of an ester in the presence of a base

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