Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 2 Test

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Anatomy terms from Anthony's Textbook of Anatomy and Physiology, 19th edition from chapter 2 and beginning part of chapter 4

Element

it cannot be broken down or decomposed into 2 or more different substances

Compound

2 or more elements that are joined to form chemical combinations

Energy Level

Determine whether atom is chemically active

Octet Rule

Atoms with fewer or more than eight electrons in outer energy level will attempt to lose, gain, or share electrons with other atoms to achieve stability

Isotopes

Contain same number of protons but different amount of neutrons. Has same basic chemical properties as any other atom and same atomic number, but they have a different atomic weight.

radioisotope

A special type of isotope that is unstable and undergoes nuclear breakdown. During breakdown, radioactive isotopes emit nuclear particles and radiation, causing decay

Molecule

formed when 2 or more atoms are joined

Ionic bond

The strong electrostatic force that binds the positively and negatively charged ions

Ions

Ionic bonds that are dissolved in water. Ions can be positively or negatively charged

Covalent Bond

A chemical bond formed by sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between outer energy levels of two atoms

Polar

Unequal charge distribution on a molecule

Hydrogen Bonds

Can exist between biologically important molecules. Are much weaker forces because they require less energy to break and they result from unequal charge distribution on a molecule.

Synthesis Reactions

Result in formation of new bonds, and energy is required for the reaction to occur and the new products to form.

Decomposition Reactions

Result in the breakdown of a complex substance into two or more simpler substances. They occur when a complex nutrient is broken down in a cell to release energy for other cellular functions

Exchange reactions

Permits two different reactants to exchange components and from 2 new products. Break down, or decompose, two compunds and synthesize 2 new compunds

Reversible Reaction

They proceed in both directions

Metabolism

All the chemical reactions that occur in body cells

Catabolism

Describe the chemical reactions that break down larger food molecules into smaller chemical units and release energy

Anabolism

Involves many chemical reactions that build up larger and more complex molecules from smalle subunits. They require energy

Hydrolysis

A water molecule is added to break up a larger compound into smaller subunits

Dehydration Synthesis

The chemical reaction responsible for joining together smalle units to form larger molecules. Water is removed as smaller subunits are fused together

Electrolytes

Are substances that break up or dissociate in solution to formed charged particles or ions

Acid

Any substnace that will release a hydrogen ion when in a solution

Bases

Are electrolytes that when dissociated in solution shift the hydrogen/ OH- balance in favor of OH-

pH

the abbreviation for phrase meaning power of hydrogen and used to mean relative hydrogen ions concentration of a solution

Buffers

Minimize changes in the concentrations of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions in our body fluids

Salt

any compund that results from the chemical interactions of an acid and base

Carbohydrates

compounds that contain the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, with the carbon atoms linked to one another to form chains of varying length

Monosaccharides

simple sugars, have short carbon chains
EX. glucose, fructose, and galactose, ribose and deoxyribose

Disaccharides

double sugars, are carbohydrates composed of 2 or more simple sugars that are bonded together through a synthesis reaction that involves the removal of water
EX. sucrose, maltose, and lactose

Polysaccharides

complex sugars, consist of many monosaccharides chemically joined to form straight or branded chain
Ex. glycogen, starch, chitin, cellulose

Lipids

-Water insoluble organic biomolecules, composed largely of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus
-Ex. triglycerides or fats, phospholipids, steroids, and prostaglandins
-many used for energy purposes where others serves a structural role and function as integral parts of cell membranes, protect organs

nonpolar

without charged regions

triglycerides

-fats, the most abundant lipids and function as body's most concentrated source of energy
-composed of 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids

Saturated fatty Acid

all available bonds of hydrocarbon chain are filled with hydrogen atoms

Unsaturated Fatty acid

has 1 or more double bonds in hydrocarbon chain

Phospholipids

-fat compounds
-has l glycerol and 2 fatty acids and 1 phosphate group
-one end is hydrophilic and the other end is hydrophobic
-form bilayers with fatty acid tails

Hydrophilic

water loving is at the phospholipid head

Hydrophobic

water hatting and on two fatty acids end

Steroids

are widely distributed in the body and are involved in many important structural and functional roles
EX. cholesterol

Cholesterol

-found in plasma membrane surrounding every body cell
-helps stabilize important cellular structure and is required for many reactions that cells must perform to survive

Prostaglandins

-lipids composed of 20-carbon unsaturated fatty acid that contains 5 carbon rings
-first associated with prostate tissue
-produced by cell membranes by almost every body tissue
-crucial role in regulating effects of several hormones, influence blood pressure, and secretion of digestive juices, enhances the body's immune system and inflammatory response and have important role in blood clotting and respiration

Proteins

-have 4 elements, carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen
-most abundant organic compounds in the body
-divided into 2 categories structural and functional

Structural Proteins

-form the structure of cells, tissues, and organs of the body
-shape determines how it functions
-found in tendons and ligaments

Functional Proteins

-enzymes
-finally functioning state called naive state which are globular, often soluble and have chemically active regions

Enzymes

functional proteins that bring molecules together or split them apart in chemical reactions

Amino Acids

the elements that make up a protein molecule
-20 common ones
-constructed of carbon atom, and amino a group, carboxyl group, a hydrogen atom, and a side chain

Essential Amino Acids

-8 of them
-cannot be produced by the body and must be included in diet

Nonessential Amino Acids

-12 of them
-can be produced from other amino acids or from simple organic molecules readily available to body cells

Peptide Bond

-is one that binds the carboxyl group of one amino acid to amino group of another amino acid
-formed from the split off of H2O

Dipeptide Bond

peptide bond linked by another 2 amino acids

Dehydration Synthesis

-subunits are joined together, resulting in the loss of water
-very common in living organisms

Hydrolysis

-decomposition reaction that requires the addition of water molecule to break a bond

Primary structure

a protein refers to number, kind, and sequence of amino acids that make up the polypeptide chain

Secondary Structure

-chains are coiled or bent into pleated sheets
-most common type of coil takes a clockwise direction and called alpha helix

Tertiary Structure

-it underwent contortions from secondary structure to form a globular-shaped structure
-coils touch one another in many places and spot welds or interlocking connections occur

Quartenary Structure

-contains clusters of more than 1 polypeptide chain all linked together into 1 giant molecule

Chaperones

-present in every body cell acts to direct the steps required for proteins to fold into shape that is required for them to function properly

Denature

-when protein loses it shape, it loses its function
-causes are from changes in temperature, changes in pH, radiation, and presence of certain hazardous chemicals

Nucleic Acid

-are polymers of thousands and thousands of smaller molecules called nucleotides

Deoxyribonucleotides

-consists of pentose sugar named deoxyribose, a nitrogenous base, and a phosphate group

Ribonucleotides

-consists of pentose sugar named ribose, a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group

Purine bases

-adenine and guanine
-have double ring structure

Pyrimidine

-cytosine and thymine
-have single ring structure
-in RNA uses uracil instead of thymine

DNA Molecules

-largest molecules in body
-composed of many nucleotides
-2 kinds of base pairs only present

RNA

-consist of single strand
-sequence of ribonucleotides that is copied from portion of DNA molecule

transfer RNA

-its used to grab a specific amino acid and place it in correct sequence when building a primary protein strand

Ribozyme

-involved in editing code of RNA strands by removing sections of the code and joining the remaining pieces

ATP

-composed of adenine and ribose sugar which is attached to 3 phosphate groups
-bonds called high energy bonds because when they are broken during catabolic chemical reactions, energy is transferred to newly formed compounds
-called energy currency of cells

high-density lipoproteins

-have high density of protein
-called good cholesterol
-low risk for atherosclerosis

low-density lipoprotein

-contains less protein
-cholestrol in LDLs is called bad cholesterol
-high blood levels of LDL are associated with atherosclerosis

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