What is Criminology?
The scientific study of the nature, extent, cause, and control of criminal behavior.
What is Criminal Justice?
The studies of the agencies if social control - Police, Courts, and Corrections.
What is Deviance, or Devient Behavior?
Behavior that departs from the SOCIAL NORM.
What is Social Control and some examples?
FORMAL - Measure expressed through laws. "UCMJ, Criminal Justice system.
INFORMAL - measure experssed through a social group. "Religion, Family."
What are the Criminological Perspective and examples?
1) Classical/Choice - crime is a function of free will
2)Biological/Psycho - genetics, chemicals, neuro
3)Structural - ecological forces. Crime rates
4)Process - socialization forces. Peers, parents
What are the Theories of Victimization and examples?
The idea that the victims behavior was the spark that ignited the subsequent offense.
1) Active Precipitation
What is Active Precipitation?
the victim may use provacative words to initiate the attack.
What is Passive Precipitation?
the victim expresses personal traits that attracts the attacker.
What is the Routine Activities Theory?
1)Availability of suitable targets
2)Absence of capable guardians
3)Presence of motivated offenders
What are the Victim Characteristics?
What is Megans Law?
Law that Convicted sex offenders must register with local law enforcement.
What are the 2 conponents of Megans Law?
1)Sex offender registration
What are the Goals of Sentencing/Punishment? "G.R.I.D.S."
What is General Deterrence?
punished to show the affects of the crime commited
What is Specific Deterrence?
sentencing is so severe it would make the criminal not want to commit again
What is Restituotion?
Probation in which the convicted pays back the society or the victimsfor troubles the offeders caused?
What is Incapacitation?
the idea of keeping the convicted in confinement to eliminate the risk of them committing further offences/
What is Diversion?
rehibilitation that removes offenders from the normal channels of the criminal justice system.
Name 2 Sentencing Structures?
2) 3 Strikes Law
What is Manditory Sentencing?
Sets a limit to the of correction to the crime committed.
What is the 3 Strikes Law?
3 Strikes Laws provide lengthy terms for any person convicted of 3 felony offences. 25 to life on the 3rd felony offence in California.
What is Sentence Disparity?
criminals comvicted of similar offences recieve widely different sentences.
What is Offense-Specific?
Criminals with act selctively to the characteristics of an individual act. "plan a crime"
What is Offender-Specific?
Means that criminals are not robots who engage in unthinking, unplanned tandom acts of antisocial behavior. Decide whether they have the prerequisites for the crime.
3 personal factors that condition people to choose crime?
Econimic Oppertunity, Learning and Experience, Knowledge of Criminal Techniques.
3 things structured by analysis in the decision to commit crime?
Choosing the type Crime, Choosing the Time and Place of Crime, Selecting the Target of Crime.
What is the Social Disorganization Theory?
Focuses on the conditions within the urban environment that affects crime rates.
What is the Strain Theory?
Crime is a function of the conflict between goals people have and the means they can use to obtain them legally.
What are Indicators of Social Disorganization?
High Unemployment School Dropouts, Low-Income Levels, and Large Amounts of Single Parent Households.
What are Intermediate Sanctions?
Restitutions (community & monetary), Home Confinement, Electronic Monitoring.
What are Probation Services?
Investigation, Treatment, and Supervision.
What is a Jail?
A secure institution used to detain offenders before trial if they cannot afford bail.
What is a Prison?
A secure institution used to detain convicted offenders.
What is Parole?
Is the planned release and community supervision of incarcerated offenders before the expiration of ther prison sentences.