Chapter 7 Bones and Skeletal Tissue

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What are the Eight Bones of the Canium

Frontal, Temporal, Occipital, Ethmoid, Sphenoid, Parietal, Mandible, and Maxillae

What are the divisions of the spine

Cervical (7) Thoracic (12) Lumbar (5)
The Sacrum (fused 5) and the Coccyx (Fused 4)

What is the proper name for C1

The Atlas

What is the proper name for C2

The Axis

On which vertebra are facets located and what is their function?

They are located on the traverse process of the Thoracic Vertebra; their function is articulation

How many vertebra make up the vertebral column?

24 - Cervical (7) Thoracic (12) Lumbar (5)

What are the components of the Intervertebral Disc? What is it composed of?

Annulus fibrosis and Nucleus Pulposus
Fibro-cartilage

What makes up the thoracic cage? (Rib Cage)

Sternum, Costal Cartilage and Ribs
Coastal Cartilage is an example of Hyline Cartilage

What are the Rib types?

True (7), False(3) and Floating(2)

What are the parts of a rib?

Head, neck, tubercle angle, and shaft

What makes up the Pectoral Girdle?

2 Scapula, and 2 Clavicles

Define Scapula

Shoulder Blade

Define Clavicles

Collar Bone

Forehead Bone

Frontal Bone

Cheek Bone

Zygomatic

Lower Jaw

Mandible

Bridge of Nose

Nasal

Posterior bones of the hard palate (Back of the head)

Occipital

Much of the lateral and superior cranium

Parietal

Single, Irregular, Bat shaped bone that forms part of the cranial floor

Sphenoid

Tiny Bones that bear tear ducts

Lacrimal

Anterior part of hard plate

Palatine

Superior and middle nasal conchea formed from its projections

Ethmoid

Site of mastoid process

Temporal

Site of Stella Turcica

Sphenoid

The site of the Cribriform Plate

Ethmoid

Where is the Mental Foramen located?

The Mandible

The site where the styloid processes are located

Temporal

What are the four bones that contain para nasal sinuses?

Maxilla, Frontal, Ethmoid, Sphenoid

Condyles on this cranial bone articulate with the atlas

Occipital

Foramen Magnum is contained here

Occipital

A small U shaped bone in the neck where many muscles of the tongue attach. The jointless wonder

hyoid

The middle ear is found here

Palatine

The nasal septum is attached to this bone

Sphenoid

Bears an upward protrusion called the crista galli

Ethmoid

Contains Avioli bearing teeth

Maxilla

What is a suture?

An immovable joint

What is the name of the one skull bone that is not joined to others by sutures?

The Mandible

What bones are connected by the Lamdoid Suture?

The Parietal Bone and The Occipital Bone

What are two possible functions for Sinuses?

To Lighten the facial bones & they may act as resonance chambers for speech

What is the Orbit?

The eye socket

Which bones contribute to the formation of the orbit?

Frontal Bone, Sphenoid, Lacrimal, Maxilla, Zygomatic, and Ethmoid

Why is the Sphenoid called the keystone of the cranial floor?

Because it articulates with all other cranial bones

Vertebral Type containing foramina in the transverse processes, through which the vertebral arteries reach the brain.

Cervical Vertebra - typical

The dens here provide a pivot for rotation of the first cervical vertebra (C1)

Axis

Transverse processes faceted for articulation with the ribs; spinous processes pointing sharply downward (Vertebra)

Thoracic Vertebra (T1-T12)

A Composite Bone; Articulates with the hipbone laterally

Sacrum

Massive weight sustaining vertebra

Lumbar Vertebra (L-1 - L-5)

Vestigial fused vertebra (tailbone)

Coccyx

Supports the head and allows a rocking motion in conjunction with the occipital condyles

Atlas

Cavity of the vertebra that encloses the nerve cord

Vertebral Foramen

Weight bearing portion of the vertebra

The Body

These provide levers against which muscles pull on the thoracic vertebra

The Superior Articular Facet
Transverse Process

Openings providing for the exit of spinal nerves in vertebra

Intervertebral Formena

Which two spinal curvatures are obvious at birth

Thoracic and Sacral

What are the secondary curvatures and under what conditions do they develop?

Cervical - When the baby begins holding its head own its own
Lumbar- When the baby begins walking

A Sharp slender process (On a vertebra)

Spine

A Small rounded projection (On a vertebra)

A Tuberal

A narrow ridge of bone

A Crest

A Large rounded projection

Tuberosity

The Structure supported on the neck

The Head

An Arm like projection

Ramus

Rounded Articular Projection

Condyle

A narrow opening

Fissure

Meatis

A canal like structure

A round or oval opening through bone

Foramen

A shallow depression

Fossa

Air Filled Cavity

Sinus

Large Irregularly shaped projection

Trochanter

Raised area above a condyle

Epicondyle

A projection or prominence

Process

A smooth, nearly flat articular surface

Facet

What are the four classifications of bone?

Long, Short, Flat, or Irregular

Which bone type has the least amount of spongy bone?

Long bone

This part of long bone contains spongy bone in adults

epiphysis

The Diaphysis is made up of what kind of bone?

Compact Bone

Fat in adult bone is stored how?

As yellow marrow

Scientific term for bone shaft

Diaphysis

The site of blood cell formation

The red marrow cavity located in the spongy bone of long bones

Major submembranous site of osteoclasts

Compact Bone

Major submenbranous site of osteoblasts

Periosteum

The Periosteum is composed of:

Connective tissue

Growth plate remnant

Epiphyseal Line

Layers of boney matrix around a central canal

Concentric lamellae

Site of Osteocytes (where they live)

Lacunae

Longitudinal canal carrying blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves

Central Canal

Minute canals connecting osteocytes of an osteon

Canaliculi

Inorganic salts deposited in organic ground substance in bone is called the osseous____

Matrix

What is the function of the organic matrix in bone?

This is where blood cells are made

Name the organic bone components

Osteocytes, collagen fibers and Ground Substance

Why are calcium salts stored in bone?

To strengthen bone and to store calcium for body consumption.

Bone is broken down by what kind of cell?

Osteoclasts

Cartilage-forming cells secrete new matrix against the external face of the existing cartilage tissue during what kind of growth?

Appositional Growth

Fossa Are?

Bone Depressions

Bones serve as a reservoir for

Calcium

Yellow Marrow can revert to red marrow if red blood cells are needed. (True or False)

True

Compact bone contains osteons (True or False)

True

Most bones below the base of the skull form by

endochondral ossification

At the end of secondary ossification, hyaline cartilage can be found where in long bones?

at the epiphyseal plates

In adolescence, the "growth spurt" that is observed is mainly attributed to an increase in:

Androgens.

When Calcium concentration in the blood becomes lower than normal:

A decrease in Ca2+ concentration in the blood is detected by the body; in response, PTH (parathyroid hormone) is released. The release of PTH activates osteoclasts. Osteoclasts then resorb bone, releasing Ca2+ to restore calcium homeostasis.

The final step in fracture repair is:

bone remodeling.

What are Caniculi

a tunnel or passage way through bone

Rickets can be caused by:

a deficiency of vitamin D.

The adult form of rickets is called

Osteomalicia

What are the three primary mineral salts stored in bone?

Potassium, Sodium, and Calcium

What happens when there is an abundance of calcium in the blood?

The thyroid gland lowers the secretion of PTH and increases the secretion of calsitonin, which inhibits the the osteoclasts from breaking down bone while simultaneously signaling the osteoblasts to deposit calcium salts into bone

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