3 Forms of vitamins A
"ol" ending means alcohol
"al" ending means aldohide
Retinol binding protein
Carries retinol around the body by the protein
Rhodopsin = retinal(vitamin A) + opsin(protein)
Operates: in the dark retinal is bent and attached to opsin. When light hits, it straightens and breaks off of the opsin
slow recovery of vision in the dark
Roles of vitamin A
required for the development of epithelial and goblet cells
required by the immune system
required for bone remodeling
Involved in the production of steroid and thyroid hormones
Blindness, caused by damage to the cornea, because of a vitamin A deficiency.
vitamin A precursor, premature form. Yellowish molecule.
Vitamin A toxicity symptoms
joint pain, head aches, dry skin, nausea, diarrhea, irritability, fatigue, insomnia, a slow clotting time, slow metabolism, amenorrhea, birth defects.
Accutane and Retin-A
thin the skin to reduce acne
Know some vitamin A sources
liver, dairy products, and some fruits and vegetables
can be made in the skin, can be made from sunlight from cholesterol. Elongates intestinal villi. Increases calcium absorption. Promotes bone mineralization. Increases a person's resistance to TB. Best sources are dairy products, and 15mins of sun, several times a week.
Vitamin D deficiency
Rickets. Causes calcium deposites is soft tissue.
name for the four forms of vitamin E
Good sources: Leaves, nuts, seeds
Too much vitamin E
1000 milligram, symptoms are nausea, craps, vision blurred.
Sun light can destroy some vitamin E
Atoms or molecules with an unpaired electron.
Vitamin E's main function
an antioxidant for the lipid soluble parts of the body
Vitamin E deficient
Poor vision, anemia, cysts in the breast
required to make bone proteins, minerals.
Sources: milk, leavy green vegetables, and GI bacteria
Vitamin K deficient
weakness and bleeding. Toxicity can occur at 100 times RDA. Can cause jaundice(liver overwhelmed), RBC hemolysis(breaking of blood), brain damage.
Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn
excessive bleeding due to low vitamin K