Geology Test 1 part 2

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Chapters 2-4 from natural disasters

Which of the following is the correct order of the layers of the Earth from inside to outside?

inner core, outer core, mantle, crust

Which of the following best describes the internal structure of the earth?

A chocolate covered cherry, it is solid at the core surrounded by a liquid layer and semi-solid layer, then covered in a thin solid coating.

What would be the correct relationship between the crust and the lithosphere?

The crust sits on top of the lithosphere

Where are earthquakes generally found?

A. Convergent boundaries
B. Divergent boundaries
C. Transform Fault boundaries
D. Hot Spots
E. EARTHQUAKES ARE FOUND ON ALL OF THE ABOVE

The Himalayas are associated with which of the following plate boundaries?

Continent-continent convergence

Why aren't volcanoes associated with continent-continent convergence?

Both plates are buoyant too sink into the Asthenosphere

What is paleomagnetism?

The study of magnetism of rocks at their origin.

The geographic distribution of the Mesosaurus, a small swimming reptile that lived during the late Paleozoic, shows that the reptile lived on the southwest coast of what is now Africa and the southeast coast of what is now South America. This provides evidence that:

Africa and S. America were once joined into one continent.

The inside of the Earth is composed of layers that have different properties.

True

Geologists have samples of rock from the Earth's core?

False

Tectonic plates are defined by the location of continents and oceans.

False

The ocean floor is younger than the rocks on the continents

True

Which of the following statements is FALSE about the magnitude of earthquakes?

An earthquake of magnitude 3 on the scale is only slightly bigger than a 2.

Which scale would be most appropriate to describe the damage from an earthquake to structures and people

The Modified Mercalli Scale

Which type of fault is a transform fault?

strike slip fault

Which of the following statements is FALSE about P-waves?

P-waves cause the most damage in an earthquake

The amount of shaking that is felt from an earthquake depends on _______.

A. location with respect to the epicenter
B. depth of focus
C. direction of the epicenter
D. Earth materials through which the waves move
E. ALL OF THE ABOVE

Which of the following places in the U.S. does NOT see earthquake hazards?

Minneapolis, MN

Which kind of material would be prone to liquefaction during an earthquake?

Sandy soil with water between the grains

Which of the following may be a threat to an area, after the initial shaking from the earthquake subsides?

A. Fires
B. Landslides
C. Tsunamis
D. Aftershocks
E. ALL OF THE ABOVE

If you knew that an earthquake was coming, and had time, where is the safest place to be?

In your backyard away from any buildings or power lines

T or F. Earthquakes around the world are extremely rare events

False

T or F. The San Andreas Fault would be considered a potentially active fault because it has not produced a major quake in the last 10 years.

False

T or F. Any time there is movement along a fault, an earthquake is felt.

False

T or F. Surface waves are the slowest waves, but have amplitude and cause the most destruction in an earthquake.

True

T or F. You can find the location of the epicenter of an earthquake from any seismograph reading

False

T or F. All earthquakes in the United States are situated on the West Coast near the San Andreas Fault.

False

T or F. Earthquakes may expose new mineral resources for people to mine.

True

T or F. Areas along a fault with a seismic gap are unlikely to see future earthquakes.

False

Which of the following regions has the least risk from tsunamis?

Atlantic coast of the United States.

The Indonesian Tsunami cause a catastrophe around the Indian Ocean because ______.

There was no warning system to alert people to evacuate

Which is the best explanation for how earthquakes cause tsunamis?

Earthquakes shift the sea floor up or downward, causing water to be displaced.

Which of the following describes what happens to tsunami waves as they move towards the shore?

The waves increase in amplitude and frequency, decrease in speed.

Which of the following signs should cause a person to leave a low lying or beach area?

A. An earthquake is felt near a susceptible coastline area
B. The ocean begins to recede, showing the ocean floor
C. A tsunami siren is heard
D. A giant wall of water is seen moving towards the beach
E. ALL OF THE ABOVE

T or F. Tsunamis can be caused by triggers other than earthquakes

True

T or F. Tsunamis in the open ocean are big enough to capsize freighters and other large boats.

False

T or F. Usually, there is only one wave from the tsunami, ad once it recedes people may return to their homes.

False

There is no way to know where a tsunami is likely to occur.

False

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