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The idea od spontaneous generation postulated that

living organisms could spontaneously arise from non-living material.

Cellulose is a major component of plants and is only directly digested by

microorganisms

Bioremediation refers to

using bacteria to clean up pollutants.

Lyme Disease is an example of a disease

that is due to mutation

Bacteria

multiply by binary fission, do not comntain a true nucleous, prokaryotic, rigid cell wall, single cell, peptidoglycan

What is not usually true of Archaea?

Reproduce by binary fission

The cell types which lack membrane bound nucleus are found in the

prokaryotes and archaea

The system by which organisms are named is referred to as

nomenclature

The scientific name of an organism includes its

Genus and Species

Viroids

naked pieces of RNA.

Outside a cell, viruses are

inactive

Viruses, Viroids, and prions all

operate intracellularly, considered acellular agents of disease.

Although it is said that the 20th century was the Age of Physics, it is predicted that the twenty-first century will be the age of

Microbial biodiversity

Prokaryotes abd Eukaryotes

may use flagella to move

Eukaryotes

membrane bound organelles, nuclear membrane, cytoskeleton

Cytoskeleton, rigid cell wall, peptidoglycan

Prokaryotes

The human body only contains bacteria during illness

False

Virues simultaneously contain DNA, RNA, protein

Flase

Positively charged component of the atom is the

Proton

The part of the atom that is most invloved in chemical reactivity is the

Electron

Electrons are found in

orbitals

Sharing of electrions forms a

strong covalent bond.

Atoms that gain electrons are

negatively charged.

Which bond is weak individually but strong as a group

Ionic and hydrogen

pH

a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration.

The subunits of proteins are

amino acids

How many different amino acids are there to choose from when assembling a protein

20

Amino Acids in proteins are linked to one another by peptide bonds between the

carboxyl group of one amino acid and amino group of another.

The most important feature of a protein is

shape

The helixes and sheets of amino acids form a proteins

secondary structure

A protein

may need help to assume correct shape.

Protein denaturation can

occur due to certain chemicals, pH change, high temperatures, cause protein to no longer fxn.

Carbohydrates

may interconvert between ring and linear structures

Dehydration rxn are involved in

formation of peptidoglycan and polysaccarides.

Nucleotides

signaling molecules, part of enzymes, carry chemical energy in bonds, DNA building blocks.

Purines of DNA are

adenine and guanine

Which shows the incorrect complementary base pairing?

G:T

The components of fats are fatty acids and

glycerol

Eukaryotic cells are

defined by the presence of a membrane bound nucleus.

The two mgnifying lenses found in a light microscope are the

ocular and objective.

In viewing a microscopic specimen, oil is used to

decrease the refraction and increase the resolution.

The gram stain and the endospore stain both use

basic dyes and safranin

Which may result in Gram + bacteria appearing to be Gram - ?

Decolorizing too long and using old cultures.

The major criteria used in placing bacterua into different groups is based on differences in

cell wall structure.

Immunofluorescence

uses fluorescently tagged molecules, makes use of the specificity in binding of antibodies, requires a UV microscope.

Which term refers to bacterial morphology

coccus and bacillus

Which is true of simple diffusion of water?

H20 enters cell, produces osmotic pressure, relies on selectively permeable nature of cell membrane.

Facilitated diffusion and active transport

transport molecules into or out of a cell.

Which is true concerning the cell wall prokaryotes?

determines the shape, prevents from bursting, contains peptidoglycan, targeted by antimicrobials.

Which molecules are associated with the cell wall of Gram +?

Peptidoglycan, D-form amino acid, teichoic acids.

Penicillin would be most effective against

growing bacteria, Gram + Bacteria

The structures used for motility in both eukaryoties and prokaryotes are

flagella

Extrachromasomal DNA is found in

Mitochondira and plasmids

Endospores are

dormant cell type

Phagocytosis

ingestion of particles, performed by animal cells.

Which is not true of mitochondria and chloroplasts

the are found in all organisms.

All the bacterial cells that result from the replication of a single organism are said to be a

population

The scientist that contributed most to the development of pure culture techniques was

Robert Koch

The solidifying agent used most successfully in bacterial nutrient media is

Agar

The simplest technique for isolationg bacteria in growth media is referred to as the

streak plate method

Bacteria may be stored

slant in refrigerator, frozen in glycerol solution, lyophilized.

In the growth curve of a bacteria population, the bacteria are rapidly increasing in number in the

exponential pahse.

Late log phase of the bacterial growth curve

is marked by the production of secondary metabolites.

generally the proteins of thermophiles

resist denaturation

Organisms that require gaseous oxygen for metabolism are referred to as

obligate anaerobes.

High concentrations of salt and sugar in foods

useful in preserving foods, draw H20 out of a cell.

Growth factors are

compounds that must br provided to the organism.

Organisms may derive energy from

sunlight and metabloizing chemical compounds

A medium that enhances the growth of one perticular organism in a mixed population is termed

selective medium

The process of killing or removing all the microorganisms in or on a material is termed

sterilization

Pasterization

is the use of heat to reduce pathogenic/spoilage bacteria to a safe level.

Plain soap is very effective in controlling spread of microorganisms because it is

effective at the mechanical removal of microorganisms.

To reduce or eliminate disease/spoilage causing organisms, food is often subjected to

heat, chemical additives, radiation, cold.

Upon treatment with heat or chemicals, bacteria will

die at constant proportion, D-value

Boiling is not reliable for sterilization because

heat resistant endospores are unaffected.

Typical conditions used for sterilizations are

temperature, psi, and length.

Which of the following is not a sterilization method?

pasteurization

Oxidation of proteins is achieved most readily

in a hot air oven.

Liquid media containing heat-sensitive components would best be sterilized by

membrane filtration

Ultraviolet radiation at the bactericidal wavelength destroy bacteria by

damaging nucleic acid

Alcohols are not reliably effective at destroying

naked viruses and endospores

Ethylene oxide is gas that

useful in sterilizing heat or moisture sensitive items, potentially carcinogenic.

Which is true of iodine?

Does not readily kill endospores, used as an antiseptic, found as tinctures or iodophors.

Use of heat to eliminate pathogens/spoilage organisms

pasteurization

removal of all life

sterilization

for use of skin

antiseptic

elimination of most pathogens on a material

disinfection

reduction of microorganisms to meet health standards

sanitization

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