Science - Chapter 4 - Cell Division And Mitosis

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Mitosis

cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes

Chromosome

a structure in the nucleus that contains hereditary material

Asexual Reproduction

a reproductive process that involves only one parent and produces offspring that are identical to the parent

Sexual Reproduction

a type of reproduction in which two sex cells, usually an egg and a sperm, join to form a zygote, which will develop into a new organism with a unique identity.

Sperm

haploid sex cells formed in the male reproductive organs

Egg

haploid sex cell formed in the female reproductive organs

Fertilization

in sexual reproduction, the joining of a sperm and egg

Zygote

New diploid cell formed when a sperm fertilizes an egg; will divide by mitosis and develop into a new organism.

Diploid

cell whose similar chromosomes occur in pairs

Haploid

cell that has half the number of chromosomes as body cells

Meiosis

reproductive process that produces four haploid sex cells from one diploid cell and ensures offspring will have the same number of chromosomes as the parent organisms.

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid. Double-stranded nucleic acid twisted into a helical shape; its base sequence encodes the primary hereditary information for all living organisms and many viruses.

Gene

section of DNA on a chromosome that contains instructions for making specific proteins

RNA

ribonucleic acid; a type of nucleic acid that carries codes for making proteins from the nucleus to the ribosomes

Mutation

any permanent change in a gene or chromosome of a cell; may be beneficial, harmful, or have little effect on an organism.

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