5.3,5.4, 5.5 Historical geography

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philip II

King of Macedonia, father of Alexander the Great

macedonia

an ancient kingdom north of greece, whose ruler philip II conquered Greece in 338 B.C.

alexander the great

Conquered and ruled an empire stretching from Macedonia to the Indus Valley

darius III

Persian king who lost his empire to Alexander the Great

pericles

a wise and able statesman, politician, speaker, and general that led Athens during much of its golden age

461 to 429 B.C

time of pericles domination (Age of pericles)

1. to strengthen athenian democracy 2. to hold and strengthen the empire 3. to glorify athens

the three goals of pericles

increased the number of public officials with paid salaries and introducing direct democracy

What did pericles do to strengthen Athenian democracy?

Delian League

Organized by Athens that was an alliance between a group of city-states

Pericles

Who stole Delian League money for a strong Athenian navy and beautiful Athens?

Parthenon

A masterpiece of architectural design and craftsmanship witha 23,000 sq ft building

Athena

Who was the parthenon built for?

Phidias

Sculptor of the parthenon

graceful, strong, and perfectly formed. faces showed no joy and anger-only serenity. portraying ideal beauty

Description of sculptures during the golden age

classical art

The art of ancient Greece and Rome, in which harmony, order, and proportion were emphasized.

in the West

Where were the first greek theaters build?

Justice, leadership, and duties owed to the gods

What were greek plays about?

tragedy

serious drama about common themes such as love, hate, war, or betrayal with a sad ending. Featured a main character or a tragic hero with an extraordinary gift or ability

Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides

Three notable greek dramatists who wrote tragedies

oresteia

three play series based on the family of Agamemnon, the mycenean king who commanded the greeks at troy-written by Aeschylus

oedipus the king and antigone

Two plays written by sophocles

Euripides

Who wrote Medea and often featured strong women in his works?

comedy

scenes filled with slapstick situations and crude humor that made fun of politics, respected people, and ideas at the time.

Aristophanes

wrote the first great comedies, including the birds and lysistrata

lysistrata

comedy that portrayed the women of athens forcing their husbands to end the peloponnesian war

herodotus

greek who lived in athens for a time, pioneered the accurate reporting of events and wrote a book on the persian wars

thucydides

greatest historian of the classical age who believed that certain types of events and political situations recur over time

studying events and situations that recur over time

What did Thucydides believe would aid in understanding the present?

431 B.C

When did Sparta declare war on Athens?

peloponnesian war

war between Sparta and Athens

pericles' strategy

To avoid land battles with the spartan army and wait for an opportunity to strike sparta and its allies on the sea

421 B.C.

When did Sparta and Athens form a truce?

430 B.C. (ish)

When did the plague come down on Athens?

415 B.C.

When did Athens send a fleet carrying 20,000 soldiers to Sicily to destroy syracuse

Syracuse

Sparta's wealthiest allie

413 B.C.

Crushing Defeat of Athens after their attempt at Syracuse

404 B.c.

When did Athenian allies surrender and lose their empire, power, and wealth for good?

philosophers

lovers of wisdom

sophists

questioned people's unexamined beliefs and ideas about justice and other traditional values

Protagoras

philosopher who is one of the most famous sophists who questioned the existence of traditional greek gods

socrates

philosopher who believed the absolute standards did exist for truth and justice and encouraged greeks to go farther and question themselves

399 B.C.

When was socrates condemned to death?

Plato

student of socrates whose writings domiated philosophic thought in europe for nearly 1,500 years

the republic

Plato's book about his vision of a perfectly governed socitey

citizens falling into three classes: farmers, artisans, and warriors. The person with the greates insight and intelligence was philosopher-king

What did Plato's perfect society include?

aristotle

student of plato-questioned the nature of the world and of human belief, thought, and knowledge.

343 B.C.

When did Aristotle accept the king's invitation to tutor the 13 year old prince Alexander the great

macedonia

the ancient kingdom of Philip II and Alexander the Great in the southeastern Balkans

Philip II

king of macedonia 359-336 B.C. who was a brilliant general and ruthless politician that used heavy phalanx formations and fast-moving cavalry

demosthenes

athenian orator who tried to warn the greeks of the threat philip and his army posed and urged to unite them against philip

338 b.c.

when athens and thebes joined forces to fight philip

battle of chaeronea

battle where the macedonians soundly beat the greeks and ended their overall independence

iliad

the epic tale of the heroic deeds performed by achilles during the trojan war

6000 thebes, with survivors sold into slavery

How many thebes were killed once alexander destroyed the city?

Anatolia

In 344 B.C. Alexander invadeded and conquered what?

surprised them with a weak point in the persian lines

What did Alexander do the darius III and the persians because he was outnumbered?

332 B.C.

When did alexander conquer egypt and become pharaoh?

He launched a massive phalanx attack followed by a calvary charge to crumble the persian lines

What did Alexander do to fight the 250,000 persian men at Gaugmela?

guagemela

small village near the ruins of ancient ninevah

Babylon, Susa, Persepolis

What other territories did Alexander conquer after Persia?

Arian

Greek historian who suggested that fire was set in revenge for the persian burning athens

persepolis

What persian capital burned to the ground with a mysterious purpose?

one of his own provincial governors

who murdered darius III?

326 B.C.

When did Alexander reach the indus valley?

11,000 miles

How far did Alexander travel during his 11 years of conquering?

babylon

Where did Alexander and his army reach in the spring of 323 b.c.?

to organize and unify his empire, conquer arabia

What were alexander's future plans?

Ptolemy became governor of egypt, seleucus took most of the persian empire, and Antignous became king of Macedonia

What were Alexander's empires divided to?

The seleucid kingdom

What did Selecus's empire became known as?

Adopted persian dress and custom, married a persian woman, and included persians and other peoples in his army

What did alexander do to become more persian?

Hellenistic culture

relating to the civilization, art, science, and literature of the Greek world from the reign of Alexander the Great to the late second century B.C.

Koine

the popular spoken language used in hellenistic cities and came from the greek word "common"

Alexandria

City in Egypt founded by Alexander the Great, center of commerce and Hellenistic civilization

By third century B.C.

When did Alexandria become an international community?

Alexander's tomb

a lighthouse called the Pharos that soared over 350 ft high and stood over the Alexandria harbor

the alexandrian library

A collection of half a million papyrus scrolls that included many of the masterpieces of ancient literature

Aristarchus

a man of Samos who reached the scientific conclusion that the sun was at least 300 times larger than earth and earth and other planets revolved around the sun

Ptolemy

An alexandrian renowned astronomer who incorrectly placed earth at the center of the solar system-accepted for the next 14 centuries

Eratosthenes

director of the alexandrian library who tried to calculate earth's size by geometry

Euclid

Greek Mathematician (Father of Geometry) who taught in Alexandria

Hipparchus

a man who lived inalexandria and charted the position of 850 stars

Elements

book written by euclid that contained 465 carefully pressed geometry propositions and proofs

archimedes

Scientist from Syracuse, estimated the value of pi, invented the screw, and explained the law of the lever and pulley

force pump, pneumatic machines, and steam engines

machines later built by hellenistic scientists from archimedes ideas

zeno

greek philosopher who founded the school of philosophy called stoicism

stoics

those who proposed that people should live virtuous lives in harmony with the will of god or the natural laws that god established to run the universe

human desires, power, and wealth-the dangerous distractions

What did stoics preach?

epicurus

man who founded the school of thought called epicureanism and taught that gods who had no interest in humans ruled the universe

epicurean

people who believed that the only real objects were those that the five senses perceived and proposed that main goal of humans was to achieve harmony of the body and mind

colossus of rhodes

Largest known Hellenistic statues, one of the wonders of the ancient world hit by an earthquake in 225 b.c.

statue of nike of samothrace

bronze statue created after the colossus of rhodes made to commemorate a greek naval victory in 203 b.c.

natural works of old age, wrinkles, and ordinary features

description of hellenistic sculptures

150 B.c.

when did the hellenistic world decline?

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