a wise and able statesman, politician, speaker, and general that led Athens during much of its golden age
1. to strengthen athenian democracy 2. to hold and strengthen the empire 3. to glorify athens
the three goals of pericles
increased the number of public officials with paid salaries and introducing direct democracy
What did pericles do to strengthen Athenian democracy?
graceful, strong, and perfectly formed. faces showed no joy and anger-only serenity. portraying ideal beauty
Description of sculptures during the golden age
The art of ancient Greece and Rome, in which harmony, order, and proportion were emphasized.
serious drama about common themes such as love, hate, war, or betrayal with a sad ending. Featured a main character or a tragic hero with an extraordinary gift or ability
three play series based on the family of Agamemnon, the mycenean king who commanded the greeks at troy-written by Aeschylus
scenes filled with slapstick situations and crude humor that made fun of politics, respected people, and ideas at the time.
comedy that portrayed the women of athens forcing their husbands to end the peloponnesian war
greek who lived in athens for a time, pioneered the accurate reporting of events and wrote a book on the persian wars
greatest historian of the classical age who believed that certain types of events and political situations recur over time
studying events and situations that recur over time
What did Thucydides believe would aid in understanding the present?
To avoid land battles with the spartan army and wait for an opportunity to strike sparta and its allies on the sea
questioned people's unexamined beliefs and ideas about justice and other traditional values
philosopher who is one of the most famous sophists who questioned the existence of traditional greek gods
philosopher who believed the absolute standards did exist for truth and justice and encouraged greeks to go farther and question themselves
student of socrates whose writings domiated philosophic thought in europe for nearly 1,500 years
citizens falling into three classes: farmers, artisans, and warriors. The person with the greates insight and intelligence was philosopher-king
What did Plato's perfect society include?
student of plato-questioned the nature of the world and of human belief, thought, and knowledge.
When did Aristotle accept the king's invitation to tutor the 13 year old prince Alexander the great
king of macedonia 359-336 B.C. who was a brilliant general and ruthless politician that used heavy phalanx formations and fast-moving cavalry
athenian orator who tried to warn the greeks of the threat philip and his army posed and urged to unite them against philip
battle of chaeronea
battle where the macedonians soundly beat the greeks and ended their overall independence
6000 thebes, with survivors sold into slavery
How many thebes were killed once alexander destroyed the city?
surprised them with a weak point in the persian lines
What did Alexander do the darius III and the persians because he was outnumbered?
He launched a massive phalanx attack followed by a calvary charge to crumble the persian lines
What did Alexander do to fight the 250,000 persian men at Gaugmela?
Ptolemy became governor of egypt, seleucus took most of the persian empire, and Antignous became king of Macedonia
What were Alexander's empires divided to?
Adopted persian dress and custom, married a persian woman, and included persians and other peoples in his army
What did alexander do to become more persian?
relating to the civilization, art, science, and literature of the Greek world from the reign of Alexander the Great to the late second century B.C.
City in Egypt founded by Alexander the Great, center of commerce and Hellenistic civilization
a lighthouse called the Pharos that soared over 350 ft high and stood over the Alexandria harbor
the alexandrian library
A collection of half a million papyrus scrolls that included many of the masterpieces of ancient literature
a man of Samos who reached the scientific conclusion that the sun was at least 300 times larger than earth and earth and other planets revolved around the sun
An alexandrian renowned astronomer who incorrectly placed earth at the center of the solar system-accepted for the next 14 centuries
book written by euclid that contained 465 carefully pressed geometry propositions and proofs
Scientist from Syracuse, estimated the value of pi, invented the screw, and explained the law of the lever and pulley
force pump, pneumatic machines, and steam engines
machines later built by hellenistic scientists from archimedes ideas
those who proposed that people should live virtuous lives in harmony with the will of god or the natural laws that god established to run the universe
man who founded the school of thought called epicureanism and taught that gods who had no interest in humans ruled the universe
people who believed that the only real objects were those that the five senses perceived and proposed that main goal of humans was to achieve harmony of the body and mind
colossus of rhodes
Largest known Hellenistic statues, one of the wonders of the ancient world hit by an earthquake in 225 b.c.
statue of nike of samothrace
bronze statue created after the colossus of rhodes made to commemorate a greek naval victory in 203 b.c.