small molecular unit that is the building block of a larger molecule
large compound formed from combinations of many monomers
compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; major source of energy for the human body
a sugar (like sucrose or fructose) that does not hydrolyze to give other sugars
any of a class of carbohydrates whose molecules contain chains of monosaccharide molecules
an oily organic compound insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents
an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information
The building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
(RNA) single-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose
(DNA) nucleic acid that contains the sugar deoxyribose
any of a large group of nitrogenous organic compounds that are essential constituents of living cells
organic compounds containing an amino group and a carboxylic acid group
element or compound produced by a chemical reaction
protein that acts as a biological catalyst
substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
(chemistry) a process in which one or more substances are changed into others
energy needed to get a reaction started
substance in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution
mixture of two or more substances in which the molecules of the substances are evenly distributed
substance that is dissolved in a solvent to make a solution
measurement systems used to indicate the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in solutions ranges from 0-14
mixture of water and non dissolved materials
material composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined
attraction between molecules of the same substances
weak acid or base that can react with strong acids or bases to help prevent sharp, sudden changes to PH
compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH) in solution
attraction between molecules of different substances; in plants: attraction between unlike molecules
compound that forms hydrogen ions (H+) in solution
vander waals forces
a slight attraction that develops between the oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules
the center of the atom which contains the protons and neutrons; in cells large structure inside some cells that contains the cells genetic material (DNA) and controls the cells activities
smallest unit of most compound
atoms of an element that has a number of neutrons different from that of other atoms of the same element.
bond formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
atom that has positive or negative charge
substance consisting entirely of one type of atom
negatively charged particle; located outside the atomic nucleus
bond formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms
substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions
basic unit of matter
element or compound that enters a chemical reaction
reactant of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction
what are the subatomic particles that make up an atom?
protons, neutrons and electrons.
because they have the same numbers of electrons-
all isotopes of an element have the same chemical properties
the main types of chemical bonds are...
covalent bonds & ionic bonds
a water molecule is polar because
there is an uneven distribution of electrons between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms
acidic solutions contain higher concentrations of H+ ions then pure water
so they have pH value over 7
basic, or alkaline solutions contain lower concentration of H+ ions then pure water
so they have pH values under 7
four groups of organic compounds found in living things are
carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins
living things use carbohydrates as their main source of energy.
plants ans some animals also use carbohydrates for structural purpose.
lipids can store
energy; some lipids are important parts of biological membranes and waterproof coverings
some protein can control the rate of reactions and regulate...
cell process. some proteins build tissues such as bone and muscle. others transport materials or help to fight disease.
chemical reactions always involve breaking of...
bonds in reactants and the formation of new bonds in products
chemical reactions that release energy often occur spontaneously so
chemical reactions that absorb energy will not occur without a source of energy.
enzymes to speed up chemical reactions that take place in cells.