smallest particle of matter. It cannot be broken down further under ordinary medical conditions. (ex. helium, oxygen, sodium)
two or more atoms chemically bonded together. It has properties different than the atoms that make them up (ex. methane, water and gluclose.).
Part of a cell that has its own particular structure and function. (ex. nucleus, chloroplasts, and mitochondria)
the basic unit of living matter
carries on all the basic activities of life.
they come from pre existing cells
are surrounded by a cell membrane
made up of several cells of the same type with an overall function. (nervous muscle, skeletal muscle and connective muscle)
are composed of several tissues working together for a common function. (ex. heart, brain, stomach, kidney)
systems composed of several organs working together for a common purpose.(ex. respiratory, circulatory, excretory and nervous systems.)
an individual living thing
can be unicellular or multicellular
consists of a large group of individuals of the same species. (ex.red maple trees in the forest, herd of zebras, flock of starlings)
Consists of a group of populations that interact in a particular area or ecosystem.
consists of all of the organisms living in a particular area, as well as all of the nonliving physical components of the environment. (ex. coral reefs, deserts, temperate deciduous forests.)
all of the environments on earth that support life.
Includes most regions of the land, bodies of water and the lower atmosphere.)
make their own food; also known as autotrophs
must find and eat their food "ready made"; also known as heterotrophs
recyclers that break down dead organic matter into small nutrients plants can use. (ex. fungi,microbes, earthworms.)
cells that lack a nucleus and membrane bound organelles. (ex. bacteria)
cells that contain a nucleus and membrane bound organelles (ex. amoeba, paramecium, plants, animals, fungi.)
7 characteristics of life
order,regulation, growth of development, uses energy, response to the environment and reproduction.
all living things are organized
living things control their internal environment. (maintaining proper temperature levels,water levels, and hormone levels.)
maintaining a constant internal environment
increase in the size of a cell or the number of cells in an organism
changes over time whereby a fully fertilized egg becomes a fully functional adult.
organisms take it in and transform it to perform all of life's activities. (ex. feeding and digestion and photosynthesis.)
Response to the environment
living things respond to stimuli. (ex. plants bend towards the sun, cells swim towards or away from certain chemicals, and animals run swim and fly
one parent or cell gives rise to identical offspring or daughter cells.(clone)
two parents contribute genetic information to create unique offspring.
species change over vast periods of time.
the branch of biology that names and classifies species
the three overarching groups
units of classification beneath the level of domain; used to be the broadest level of classification.
made up of prokaryotic cells.
growth inhibited by antibiotics
contains peptidoglycan in cell walls
(ex. e.coli, salmonella and staphlyococcus)
made up of prokaryotic cells
not sensitive to antibiotics
no peptidoglycan in cell walls
many inhabit EXTREME CONDITIONS
(ex. halophiles- salty water lovers, thermophiles- heat lover and methanogens - methane lovers)
made up of Eukaryotic cells
includes unicellular AND multicellular organisms
mostly single celled
prefer moiist habitats both autotrophs and heterotrophs.
some have organelles that multicellular organisms don't - contractile vacuoles, and oral grooves
Decomposers and saprophytes(release digestive enzymes and absorb nutrients) (ex. yeasts,mushrooms and molds.) (noteworthy structures: hyphae,mycelium ,and spores)
dont move but show tropisms(bends)
cellulose in cell walls
bends towards the light
grow towards the ground
heterotrophs that feed by ingestion
most are motile
many contain nerves and muscles
lack cell walls
invertebraes and vertebraes
"The Origin of Species"
makes the points:
1. species living today descended from ancestral species
2. natural selection was the means by which evolution occurs
Individuals in a population are different in inherited DNA such as sporting patterns in cheetahs.
Some inherited traits are better than others and make it more likely the organism can survive in its habitat, such as more spots can make one cheetah more camoflouged than others.
more organisms are born than can possibly survive. There is a limit to the availability of resources.
More individuals result in competition for limited resources. Better camoflouge may mean more prey captured
Differential Reproductive Success
Those organisms with the better adaptations tend to survive and reproduce, passing their adaptive traits to offspring. (The next generation of cheetahs may be more camoflouged than the previous one.)
The accumulation of favorable variations over time.
Formation of new species could occur over vast amounts of time.
Includes verifiable observations and measurements
derives from general principles from a large number of observations (..." all organisms are made up of cells.)
Involves asking questions to seeking answers
The logic used to come up with ways to test hypotheses. The reasoning flows from general to the specific. ("If all organisms are made up of cells and if humans are organisms then humans are made up of cells.")
The Scientific Method
3. Controlled Experiment
5. analyze data
6 conclusion- support/refute hypothesis
Differences between hypothesis and theory
hypothesis needs to be tested
theory has data to support it
explains data, predicts the future, and explains the present and past.