Chapter 4 : States

36 terms by Crob1118

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vocabulary from chapter

Autonomias

Spanish regions with devolved powers

Center

Nation's capital and its powers

Center-periphery tension

Resentment of outlying areas at rule by nation's capital

Centrifugal

Pulling apart

Confederation

Political system in which components override center

Decentralization

Shifting some administrative functions from central government to lower levels; less than devolution

Department

French first order civil division

Devolution

Shifting some powers from central government to component units

Failed state

One incapable of even minimal governance, with essentially no national government

Federalism

Balancing of power between a nation's capital and autonomous subdivisions, such as U.S. states.

First-order civil divisions

Countries' main territorial components, such as U.S. states or Spanish provinces.

Glasnost

Gorbachev's policy of media openness

Institutionalized

To make a political relationship permanent

Laissez-faire

French for "let it be"; economic system of minimal government interference and supervision; capitalism

Land

German federal first-order civil divison; plural Lander

Majoritarian

Electoral system that gives more than half of seats to one party

Majority

More than half

Mixed-member

Hybrid electoral system that uses both single member districts and proportional representation

Monarchy

Hereditary rule by one person

Nation

Population with a historic sense of self

Plurality

The most, even if less than half

Political institution

Established and durable pattern of authority

Prefect

Administrator of a French department

Prefecture

Japanese first-order civil division

Proportional representation

Elects representatives by party's percent of vote

Quasi

Nearly or almost

Regionalism

Feeling of regional differences and sometimes breakaway tendencies

Republic

A political system without a monarch; in Communist Soviet Union and Yugoslavia, federal first-order civil division

Single-member district

Electoral system that elects one person per district, as in the United States and Britain

Socialism

Economic system of government ownership of industry, allegedly for good of whole society; opposite of capitalism

State

Government structures of a nation

Statism

Economic system of state ownership of major industries to enhance power and prestige of state; a pre-capitalist system

Strong state

Modern form of government, able to administer and tax entire nation

Unitary system

Centralization of power in a nation's capital with little autonomy for subdivisions

Weak state

One unable to govern effectively, corrupt and penetrated by crime

Welfare state

Economic system of major government redistribution of income to poorer citizens

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