our awareness of ourselves and our environment
An activity that doesn't require one's full attention (e.g. brushing yo' teef)
memories that occur unintentionally
The ninety minute shift from non-REM to REM sleep. A normal night of sleep contains an average of five of these
the normal brain waves of a awake and alert state
the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state
Bursts of activity within the second stage of sleep
the brain waves indicating the early stages of sleep
the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep
rapid eye movement, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep
The stage of sleep where muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active
A debt of REM sleep causing mental unrest. REM rebound occurs at the next night of sleep
the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (e.g., temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle
the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep).
Restorative sleep theory
theory of sleep proposing that sleep is necessary to the physical health of the body and serves to replenish chemicals and repair cellular damage.
serious disturbances in the normal sleep pattern that interfere with daytime functioning and cause subjective distress
sleep disorder that accompanies sleep
sleep disorder that disrupts sleep
recurring problems in falling or staying asleep
a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings
a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times.
REM Behavior Disorder
a sleep disorder characterized by physically acting out one's dreams
frightening non-REM experiences
frightening REM experiences
Freud's dream theory
Claims that dreams are the best source of information for the unconscious; dreams are carefully constructed, containing a concealed meaning; dreams are not random
the literal, remembered events of a dream
the hidden, symbolic meaning of a dream
Dreams provide a "psychic safety valve" -expressing otherwise unacceptable feelings; contain manifest (remembered) content and a deeper layer of latent content - a hidden meaning
REM sleep triggers neural activity that evokes random visual memories, which our sleeping brain weaves into stories. Dreams mean nothing
Information Processing Dream Theory
Dreams help us sort out the day's events in order to consolidate our memories.
Jung's Dream Theory
The events of dreams are universal to all mankind, consisting of many archetypes
a social interaction in which one person suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur
a hypnotic effect that involves recalling or reenacting one's childhood
related to subject's openness to suggestion/imagination
A suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject no longer is hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors.
selective amnesia after being in a hypnotic state of events occurring during hypnosis or of information designated by the hypnotist
The Hidden Observer
a person undergoing hypnosis can still observe his/her own pain without consciously experiencing any suffering with this mental manifestation
a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood
a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions
improper or excessive use of drugs
compulsive drug craving and use
the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug
the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect
drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions
drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and Ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions
psychedelic ("mind-manifesting") drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input
Near death experiences
an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death (such as through cardiac arrest); often similar to drug-induced hallucinations.
Austrian physician whose work focused on the unconscious causes of behavior and personality formation; founded psychoanalysis
Hobson & McCarley
Founded activation synthesis theory
Student of Freud, took a more broad approach to his theories.
identified rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in 1952 and later linked it to dreams in his subjects
Founded the divided consciousness theory of hypnosis, and the hidden observer
Raymond Moody/Melvin Morse
state that near-death experiences are evidence for 'conciousness continuing after clinical death'