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The Greek Adventure

Alexander the Great

356-323 BCE; son of King Philip II of Macedon. Remembered for his conquest of the Persian Empire and most of the Near East

Antigonid Kingdom

One of the Hellenistic successor kingdoms to Alexander the Great's empire. Included most of Greece and Asia Minor.

aristocracy

a social governing class based on birth

Cleisthenes

A sixth century BCE Athenian tyrant who laid the foundations of polis democracy

democracy

a system of government in which the majority of voters decides issues and policy

Hellenistic kingdoms

Kingdoms carved out of the empire conquered by Alexander the Great. Blended Greek and Asiatic cultures; extant in the Mediterranean basin and Middle East between 300 BCE and 200 CE

Homer

Legendary author of the two epic poems of ancient Greece, the Iliad and the Oddysey

Iliad

The first of the two epics supposedly written by Homer in eigth-century Greece

Messenian Wars

Conflicts between the neighbors Sparta and Messenia that resulted in Messenia's conquest by Sparta in about 600 BCE

Minoans

ancient civilization that was centered on crete between 2000 and 1400 BCE

monarchy

rule by a single individual who often claims divine inspiration and protection

Mycenaeans

earliest known Indo-European people who settled on the Greek peninsula 1600-1100 BCE

Odyssey

2nd of Homers 2 epic poems...detailing the adventures of homeward-bound Ulysses coming from the siege of Troy

Oligarchy

rule by a few

Peloponnesian War

The great civil war between Athens and Sparta and their respective allies in ancient Greece; fought between 429-404 BCE and eventually won by Sparta

Pericles

the Athenian democratic leader and spokesman who died in the midst of the Peloponnesian War in the fifth cent. BCE

Persian Wars

conflict between the Greeks and the Persian Empire in the fifth century BCE, fought in two installments and ending with Greek victory

polis

the political and social community of citizens in ancient Greece

Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt

Egyptian state created by Ptolemy, one of Alexander the Great's generals, in the Hellenistic Era

Seleucid Kingdom of Persia

One of the 3 Hellenistic Kingdoms, the successor state to the empire of Alexander the Great in most of the Middle East.

megaron

central hearth and "mead hall" where kings and their warriors retreated to drink and feast

dorians

nomads from the north

Dark Age

1100 BCE-800 BCE

Pisistratus

aristocratic tyrant

ekklesia

town meeting of all free male Athenians

boule

council of 500 citizens chosen in 1 yr. terms

deme

precinct or ward

helotry

slavery

ephors

elected officers that ruled the state in Sparta

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