Active Membrane transport processes description

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P80 Active transport, vesicular transport

2 types of active transport

active transport and vesicular transport

Primary active transport

Transport of substance against a concentration (or electrochemical) gradient; across the plasma membrane by a solute pump; directly uses energy of ATP hydrolysis

Second active transport

cotransport (coupled transport) of two solutes across the membrane; energy is supplied by the ion gradient created by a primary active solute pump (indirectly); symporters move the transported substances in the same direction; antiporters move transported substances in opposite directions across the membrance.

3 types of vesicular transport

exocytosis, endocytosis, intracellular vesicular trafficking

exocytosis vesicular transport

moving substance out of the cell; Secretion or ejection of sustances from a cell; the substance is enclosed in a membranous vesicle; which fuses with the plasma membrane and reptures; releasing the substance to the exterior

2 ways of endocytosis

Via clathrin-coated vesicles, and Via caveolin-coated vesicles (caveolae)

Phagocytosis

Cell eating: A large external particle (protein, bacteria, dead cell debris) is surrounded by a "seizing foot" and becomes enclosed in a vesicle (phagosome)

Pinocytosis

fluid-phase endocytosis, Plasma membrane sinks beneath an external fluid droplet containing small solutes; membrane edges fuse, forming a fluid-filled vesicle; clathrin-coated vesicles formed.

Receptor-medicated endocytosis

Selective endocytosis and transcytosis; external substance binds to membrane receptors, and clathrin-coated pits are formed

Via caveolin-coated vesicles

Selective endocytosis (and trascytosis); external substance binds to membrane receptors (often associated with lipid rafts); caveolin-coated vesicles formed

Via coatomer-coated vesicles

vesicles coated with coatomer proteins pinch off from organelles and travel to other organelles to deliver their cargo

Primary active transport examples

Ions such as: Na+, K+, H+, Ca2+, and other others.

Secondary active transport examples

Movement of polar or charged sulutes, e.g., amino acids (into cell by symporters); Ca2+, H+ (out of cells via antiporters)

Exocytosis vesicular transport examples

Secrection of neurotransmitters, hormones, mucus, etc.; ejection of cell wastes

Phagocytosis examples

In the human body, occurs primarily in protective phagocytes (some white blood cells and macrophages)

Pinocytosis examples

Occurs in most cells; important for taking in dissolved soultes by absorptive cells of the kidney and intestine.

Receptor-mediated endocytosis examples

Means of intake of some hormones, cholesterol, iron, and most macromolecules.

Via caveolin-coated vesicles examples

Roles not fully know; proposed roles include choldsterol regulation and trafficking; platforms for signal transduction

Intracellular vesicular trafficking examples

Accounts for nearly all intracellular trafficking of molecules.

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