Chapter 4- Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity

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Outline of Chapter

Developmental Phsychology

A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span.

Nature vs. Nurture

the question involves which has more impact on out development; the traits we inherit or the environment that we live in.

Continuity vs. Stages

The debate to detemrine whether developmental is a gradual, continuous process or a sequence of separate stages.

Stability vs. Change

asks the question is development gradual, or does it proceed through a sequence of separate stages.

Zygote

the cell resulting from the union of an ovum and a spermatozoon (including the organism that develops from that cell). a fertilized egg.

Embryo

the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month.

Fetus

the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth.

Teratogens

agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions

Rooting Reflex

reflex consisting of head-turning and sucking movements elicited in a normal infant by gently stroking the side of the mouth of cheek (Search of nipple)

Infancy

in humans, the stage of life from birth to age two.

Childhood

the period from two years old to adolescence. Usually 12-13 yrs. of age.

Adolescent

in the state of development between puberty and maturity. Usually 13-19 yrs. of age.

Adulthood

the period of time in your life after your physical growth has stopped and you are fully developed. Typically begins at the ages of 18-21 until death.

Cognition

all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.

Jean Piget

cognitivist, believed that behavior is influenced by mental processes like perceptions and memories., tested kids intelligence. found kids develop through 4 qualitative stages., (1896-1980) brilliant observer of children; children make constant mental adaptations to new observations; equilibrium is a child's attempt to reach a balance between what a child encounters in the environment and what cognitive structures the child brings to the situation.

Pyschosocial

how social environments and interactions affect a persons psychology.

Erik Erikson

neo-Freudian, humanistic; 8 psychosocial stages of development: theory shows how people evolve through the life span. Each stage is marked by a psychological crisis that involves confronting "Who am I?" (Physchosocial development theory)

Morality

A system of learned attitudes about social practices, instituations, and individual behavior used to evaluate situations and behavior as right or wrong, good or bad.

Lawrence Kohlberg

His theory states there are 3 levels of moral reasoning and each level can be divided into 2 stages. 1. pre-conventional, 2. conventional, and 3. post-conventional. His theory focuses on moral reasoning rather than overt behavior.

Stage 1:Object Permanence

recognition that things continue to exist even though hidden from sight; infants generally gain this after 3 to 7 months of age

Stage 1:Stranger Anxiety

The fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age.

Stage 2: Preoperational

No conversation is asessed throught the developmental process. Inability to engage in operations. Can't mentally reverse actions. Lacks conversation skills., 2-7 years symbolic thoughts, language develops, object permanence firmly established

Stage 2: Egocentrism

in piaget's theory, the inability of the preoperational child to take another's point of view.

Stage 3: Conversation

the use of speech for informal exchange of views. ideas, thoughts, information etc.

Stage 3: Reverse Operations

Inability in Preoperantional Stage, begin and the end and work to start. Making objects appear different in size or shape, but in reality it is the same as the begining or original object.

Stage 3: Concrete Operational

Piaget's third stage of cognitive development; 7-11 yrs; replaces intuitive reasoning with logical reasoning in concrete situations; can see things in another perspective; develop ability to empathize; principle of conservation seen. (increased logical thought and reasoning)

Stage 4: Formal Operational

Piaget's fourth and final stage of cognitive development, from age 11 or 12 and beyond, when the individual begins to think more rationally and systematically about abstract concepts and hypothetical events. Thought is abstract and hypothetical. Logical thought. Hypothetico-deductive reasoning. Idealism (understand love and justice). Imaginary audience (others are evaluating as much as you evaluate yourself)

Stage 4: Abstract thinking

Style of thinking in which concepts and ideas are understood and later applied in problem solving. The ability to conceptualize ideas. capacity to understand hypothetical concepts

Stage 4: Complex thinking

detaching from authorities; analyze and examine alternatives more independently; weighing the benefits and risks of each option before making a final decision, thinking more creativity and learning a variety of approaches

Psychosocial development

changes that carry over in personal and interpersonal acts of development, such as motives, emotions, personality traits, interpersonal relationships and roles played in family and larger soceity.

What is PD?

changes that carry over in personal and interpersonal acts of development, such as motives, emotions, personality traits, interpersonal relationships and roles played in family and larger soceity.

What influences PD?

Attachment is a guilty source of which influences psychosoical development.

Origin of attachment: PD

This is a mutual parent- infant bond that keeps infants close to their caregivers. (Survival purpose).

Body contact: PD

Studies of monkeys raised with artificial mothers suggest that mother-infant emotional bonds result primarily from mothers providing infants with: He proved that touch was very important in the bonding process, through connections and experiences.

Familiarity: PD

Mere exposure effect, or an increase in positive feelings toward a novel stimulus (person) based on frequent exposure to it.
Positive feelings arise just on seeing someone frequently, not interaction.
More familiar you are with someone the more you will like them.
If first reaction was neg. increased exposure will intensify your dislike.

Lorenz's Work: Familiarity

Worked with foul birds, (How does a baby duck know to follow the mother duck around). He incubated the ducks and documented that they attached to the first moving individual that they see, so they follow this person around. The birds that first hatched and saw him, followed him around anywhere and everywhere.

Critical Period: Familiarity

An optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development.

Imprinting: Familiarity

a learning process in early life whereby species specific patterns of behavior are established, The process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life.

Responsive Parenting

factor that contributes most positively to the development of secure attachment between human infants and their mothers., securely attached child-basic trust. insecurely attached child, child temperament.

Authoritarian: RP

style of parenting in which the parent creates strict rules for the child and the child has little or no input into determining the rules, parents impose rules and expect obedience.

Permissive: RP

describes a parenting style that is characterized by the parent making few demands on the child, Style of parenting in which parents let their children do whatever they want; setting few limits, and offering little guidance.

Authoritative: RP

A parenting style based on recognized authority or knowledge and characterized by mutual respect.

Trust vs. Mistrust

Erikson's first stage, in which a totally dependent infant will develop an optimistic, trusting attitude toward the world depending on whether his biological needs are adequately met by his caregivers and sound attachments formed.

Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

Erikson's second stage, in which a child aged 2 - 3 years must begin to regulate some behavior, taking some personal responsibility for feeding, dressing and bathing. The child will develop a sense of self-sufficiency or a sense of personal shame and self-doubt depending on whether his efforts are met with approval or dissatisfaction.

Initiative vs Guilt

Erikson's theory (level) Preschool (3-6 years) Important events: Exploration. Children need to begin asserting control & power over their environment. Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose. Children who try to exert TOO much power experience disapproval, resulting in the negative feeling.

Competence vs. Inferiority

Erickson 4: stage school-age children use tools and acquire skills necessary for adult life; mastery builds competence - failure builds inferiority and inadequecy.

Identity vs. Role Confusion

Erikson's fifth stage. From age 12 - 20, the major task is to build a consistent identity, a unified sense of self. Figuring where they fit in the world. Failure of teens to achieve a sense of identity results in role confusion and uncertainty about the future.

Generativity vs. Stagnation

Erikson's seventh stage. From age 40 - 65, adults need to express their caring about future generations by guiding/mentoring others or producing creative work that enriches the lives of others. Failing this, people become stagnant and preoccupied with their own needs and comforts.

Intimacy vs Isolation

Eriskon's sixth stage. From age 21 - 40, the major task is to achieve intimacy (deeply caring about others and having meaningful experiences with them). Otherwise, we experience isolation, feeling alone and uncared for in life

Integrity vs. Despair

Erikson's eighth and last stage. From age 65 to death, people who look back on their lives with satisfaction develop a sense of wholeness and integrity. Those in despair look back with regret and disappointment in the lives they have led.

Adolescene

gradually become able to think like adults and take on the responsibilities of an adult.The bodies of adolescents also undergo specific changes.

Time Frame

A test of statistics that considers the time period described by the statistics. An element of a disadvantage concerning which the adverse consequences of a course of action will occur.

G. Stanley Hall

first PHD in psychology in the US; founder of the American Psychology Association (APA) - founder of the child study movement - maturational process - genetically determined series of events that unfold automatically.

Physical Changes

a type of change that alters the physical properties of a substance but does not change its composition.

Primary Sex Characteristics

The body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible.

Secondary Sex Characteristics

nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair.

Cognitive Changes

argumentative( practice negotiations), indecisive( knows options), more self conscious, invunerability ( feels experences are unique), recognize hypocrisy in adults, Intelligence, language, and thinking influence attitude, belief and behavior Genes, life experiences.

Social Changes

refers to development in culture, art, religion, class structure, etc. often follows economic developments but precedes political changes., learning about yourself and others, figuring out how you fit into the world and discovering what makes you unique.

Moral Development

development that involves thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding rules and conventions about what people should do in their interactions with other people.

Stage 1: Preconventional Morality

before age 9, most children have self-interest: they obey either to avoid punisment ("if you let your wife die, you will get in trouble") or to gain concrete rewards ("if you save your wife, you will be a hero").

Stage 2: Conventional Morality

second level of Kohlberg's stages of moral development in which the child's behavior is governed by conforming to the society's norms of behavior, ages 10-18

Stage 3: Post Conventional Morality

the third level of Kohlber's stages of moral development in which the person's behavior is governed by moral principles that have been decided upon by the individual and which may be in disagreement with accepted social norms. 18-rest of life.

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