AP US History ch 12 (SE)

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Kennedy/Cohen/Bailey; The American Pageant: key tems, people and chronology

War of 1812

a war (1812-1814) between the United States and England which was trying to interfere with American trade with France

Battle of New Orleans

A battle during the War of 1812 where the British army attempted to take New Orleans. Due to a foolish frontal attack, Andrew Jackson defeated them, which gave him an enormous popularity boost

Congress of Vienna

Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon

Treaty of Ghent

December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.

Hartford Convention

Meeting of Federalists near the end of the War of 1812 in which the party listed it's complaints against the ruling Republican Party. These actions were largley viewed as traitorous to the country and lost the Federalist much influence

Rush-Bagot agreement

an agreement that limited navel power on the Great lakes for both the United States and British Canada

Tariff of 1816

This protective tariff helped American industry by raising the prices of British manufactured goods, which were often cheaper and of higher quality than those produced in the U.S.

American system

an economic regime pioneered by Henry Clay which created a high tariff to support internal improvements such as road-building. This approach was intended to allow the United States to grow and prosper by themselves This would eventually help America industrialize and become an economic power. User-contributed

Era of Good Feelings

A name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.

Panic of 1819

A natural post-war depression caused by overproduction and the reduced demand for goods after the war. However, it was generally blamed on the National Bank.

Land Act of 1820

authorized a buyer to purchase 80 virgin acres at a minimum of $1.25 per acre in cash, it also brought about cheap transportation and cheap money

Tallmadge amendment

In 1819, Representative Tallmadge proposed an amendment to the bill for Missouri's admission to the Union, which the House passed but the Senate blocked. The amendment would have prohibited the further introduction of slaves into Missouri and would have mandated the emancipation of slaves' offspring born after the state was admitted. In 1821, Congress reached a compromise for Missouri's admission known as the Missouri Compromise.

Peculiar institution

A euphemism for slavery and the economic ramifications of it in the American South. The term aimed to explain away the seeming contradiction of legalized slavery in a country whose Declaration of Independence states that "all men are created equal". It was one of the key causes of the Civil War.

Missouri Compromise

an agreement in 1820 between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States concerning the extension of slavery into new territories

McCulloch v. Maryland

1819, Maryland tried to destory a branch of the Bank of the United States by taxing its notes. Cheif Justice John Marshall invokes the Hamiltonain doctrine of implied powers, declaring bank constitutional. As a result it strengthened the federal government and limited state governrment.

Loose construction

belief that the government can do anything that the constitution does not prohibit

Cohens v. Virginia

Cohens selling lottery tickets illegally, Virginia sues. Marshall says Virginia is right, establishes supreme courts right to review cases tried by state courts

Gibbons v. Ogden

This case involved New York trying to grant a monopoly on waterborne trade between New York and New Jersey. Judge Marshal, of the Supreme Court, sternly reminded the state of New York that the Constitution gives Congress alone the control of interstate commerce. Marshal's decision, in 1824, was a major blow on states' rights.

Fletcher v. Peck

Supreme Court case which protected property rights and asserted the right to invalidate state laws in conflict with the Constitution. Arose when a Georgia legislature was swayed by bribary granted 35 million acres in the yazoo river country to private speculators, the next legislature cancelled it, but Supreme Court said it was a contract and the constitution forbids state laws imparing contracts

Dartmouth College v. Woodward

This 1819 Marshall Court decision was one of the earliest and most important U.S. Supreme Court decisions to interpret the contracts clause in Article I, Section 10 of the Constitution. The case arose from a dispute in New Hampshire over the state's attempt to take over Dartmouth College. By construing the Contract Clause as a means of protecting corporate charters from state interventions, Marshall derived a significant constitutional limitation on state authority. As a result, various forms of private economic and social activity would enjoy security from state regulatory policy. Marshall thus encouraged the emergence of the relatively unregulated private economic actor as the major participant in a growing national economy.

Anglo-American Convention

established border between US and Canada at the 49th parallel; issue of Oregon border put on hold for 10 years

Florida Purchase Treaty

1819 - Under the Adams-Onis Treaty, Spain sold Florida to the U.S., and the U.S. gave up its claims on Texas to Spain.

Monroe Doctrine

an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers

Russo-American Treaty

1824; the Russian tsar fixed the southern boundary of his Alaskan territory at 54°40'

Isaac Brock

led the British and Canadians to capture the American fort Michilimackinac

Oliver Hazard Perry

United States commodore who led the fleet that defeated the British on Lake Erie during the War of 1812
Ex. brother of Matthew Calbraith Perry (1785-1819)

Thomas Macdonough

Commanded the weaker American fleet and challenged the British. He made the British army retreat, saving at least New York from conquest

Francis Scott Key

United States lawyer and poet who wrote a poem after witnessing the British attack on Baltimore during the War of 1812
Ex. the poem was later set to music and entitled 'The Star-Spangled Banner' (1779-1843)

James Monroe

5th President of the United States
Ex. author of the Monroe Doctrine (1758-1831)

George Canning

British foreign secretary circa 1823 He wanted America to join Britain in a declaration - wanted the protection of the Latin America states. Keep other European countries out of the western Hemisphere. John Adams thought it was best the U.S. make the declaration. It became the Monroe Doctrine.

1810

Fletcher v. Peck ruling asserts right of the Supreme Court to invalidate state laws.
Deemed unconstitutional

1811

Venezuela declares independence from Spain

1812

United States declares war on Britain.
Madison re-elected as president

1812-1813

American invasions on Canada fail

1813

Battle of the Thames
Battle of Lake Erie

1814

Battle of Horseshoe Bend
Napolean exiled to Elba
British burn Washington DC
Battle of Plattsburgh
Treaty of Ghent signed ending the War of 1812

1814-1815

Hartford Convention
Congress of Vienna

1815

Battle of New Orleans
Napolean's army defeated at Waterloo

1816

Second ank of United States founded
Protectionist Tariff of 1816
Argentina declares independence from Spain
Monroe is elected president

1817

Madison vetos Calhoun's Bonus Bill
Rush-Bagot agreement limits naval armament of Great Lakes

1818

Jackson invades Florida
Chile, in rebellion since 1810, declares Independence from Spain
Anglo-American Convention

1819

Panic of 1819
Spain cedes Florida to United States in Adams-Onis Treaty
McCulloch v. Maryland
Dartmouth College v. Woodward

1820

Cohens v. Virginia
Austria intervenes to crush popular uprising in Italy

1823

France intervenes to suppress liberal government in Spain
Secretary Adams proposes Monroe Doctrine

1824

Russo-American Treaty
Gibbons v. Ogden

1825

Erie Canal completed

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