Art: A brief history Chapter 5- art of ancient greece and the aegean world

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Amphora

an ancient Greek jar for storing oil or wine, with an egg-shaped body and two curved handles.

Minoan Culture

3000-1500 BC, Name comes from legend of king Minos of Crete, great sea power (New Palace Period), palace complexes (Knossos, Crete, and Thera), Wall paintings: Young girl and bull jumping, Ceramic jars: octopus flask, Jewelry: Gold Bee pendant

Cycladic

the earliest Aegean culture, around 2500 BC. Lived on the Cyclades. Fortified towns, hillside burial chambers, pots and human figures in clay.

Seated Harp Player

Cyclades: Sculpture in the Round. Wedged b/w the echoing shapes of chair and instrument, he may be playing for the deseased in the afterlife.

Dressed Stone

Highly finished, precisely cut blocks of stone laid in even courses, creating a uniform face with fine joints. often used as a facing on the visible exterior of a building, especially as a veneer for the facade. also called ashlar.

young girl gathering saffron crocus flowers

1630 BCE Minoan
Ponytail with shaved head shows she is a young girl. Wearing a a brightly color dress with exposed breasts and picking flowers.

Bull Jumping

period: late MINONIAN year 1450 - 1550 BCE origination: palace at knossos, crete material: fresco
significance/description: this depicts an activity that probably happened right there at the palace. young women were painted with fair skin and youths were painted with dark skin, though most of the fresco is a reconstruction. long lines convey the agility of the bull and the people -- they have the typical profile faces and frontal eyes we've seen in egypt and mesopotamia, but they also have the long limbs and tiny waists characteristic of figures in late minoan art.

Octopus Flask

Celebration on Cretan maritime power. Sea creatures float among an octopus's curling tentacles. artist captures grace and natural energy of natural forms while presenting them as a stylized design in conspicuous harmony with vessel's bulging shape.

Granulation

the fusing of tiny metal balls to a metal surface for decoration.

Bee pendant

minoan; artist arched a pair of bees or wasps around a drop of honey covered with granulation. their sleek bodies, decorated with parallel rows of granules, are framed by a single pair of outspread wings.

Mycenaean

3000 BCE; (Late Bronze Age) Greek speaking people who invaded the peninsula of Greece. They brought advanced metalworking, ceramic and architectural techniques and displaced the indigenous neolithic culture. Also called "Helladic"

Niello

a black sulfur alloy often inlaid into details incised into silver or gold.

Tholos tombs

circular, vaulted structures (often underground) used as burial places in Mycenaean culture. Most impressive is "Treasury of Atreus"

Beehive tomb

a type of subterranean tomb of the Mycenaean civilization consisting of a domed chamber entered by a passage through a hillside, also known as tholos tomb

Corbeled Vault

A vault formed by the piling of stone blocks in horizontal courses, cantilevered inward until the two walls meet in an arch.

Megaron

"Great Room"

Relieving Arch

an arch which redistributes weight above a lintel

Lion Gate

Mycenae, ca. 1300-1250 BCE, limestone. The gate consists of two great monoliths and a lintel. The lions are there to symbolically guard the main gate of the city.

Dagger Blade

the decoration on the blade shows a lion attacking a deer with four more terrified animals in full flight. the animals spring forward in "Flying Gallop" pose indicating their speed and energy. Aegean Mycenaean 1600-1500

Palace at Knossos

Minoan palace which was ran like a business in which it housed the royal family, artisans, and other merchants since the economy and government based on trade and the walls were covered in watercolor frescoes

Figure of Snake Goddess

kore

an Archaic Greek statue of a standing, draped female

kouros

Greek word for "male youth." An Archaic Greek statue of a standing, nude youth.

Cella or Naos

"main room" , The principal interior room at the center of a Greek or Roman temple within which the cult statue was usually housed.

Pronaos

The space, or porch, in front of the cella, or naos, of an ancient Greek temple.

Peristyle

single or double rows of free-standing columns in a temple.

Stylobate

the platform or base of the entire temple building.

stereobate

is the top step of the stepped platform on which colonnades of temple columns are placed. "floor of the temple"

Doric Order

the column shaft of the Doric order can be fluted or smooth-surfaced and has no base. the Doric capital consists of an undecorated echinus and abacus. the Doric entablature has a plain architrave, a frieze with metopes and triglyphs, and a simple cornice.

Column

an architectural element used for support and/or decoration. Consists of a rounded vertical shaft placed on a base topped by a decorative capital. May follow the rules of one of the architectural orders. Although usually free standing, columns can be attached to a wall (engaged).

entablature

in the classical orders, the horizontal elements above the columns and capitals. The entablature consists of, from top to bottom, a cornice, frieze, and architrave.

Shaft

the main vertical section of a column between the capital and the base, usually circular in cross section.

capital

the sculpted block that tops a column. according to the conventions of the orders, capitals, include different decorative elements.

base

any support. masonry supporting a shaft of a column.

drums

segment of the circular shaft of a column.

architrave

the bottom element of an entablature, beneath the frieze and the cornice.

frieze

the middle element of an entablature , between the architrave and the cornice. usually decorated with a sculpture, painting, or moldings.

cornice

the uppermost section of a classical entablature. more generally, horizontally projecting element found at the top of a building wall or pedestal. a ranking cornice is formed by the junction of two slanted cornices, most often found in pediments.

acanthus leaf

a leafy plants whose foliage inspired architectural ornamentation, used in the Corinthian and composite orders and in the relief scroll known as the rinceau.

abacus

the flat slab at the top of a capital, directly under the entablature.

metope

the carved, painted, or plain rectangular spaces between the triglyphs of a Doric frieze.

Triglyph

rectangular blocks between the metopes of a doric frieze. identified by the three carved vertical grooves, which approximate the appearance of the ends of wooden beams.

Gable

the triangular wall space found on the end wall of a building between the two sides of a pitched roof.

pediment

a triangular gable found found over major architectural elements such as a classical greek porticoes, windows or doors.

abstraction

any art that does not represent observable aspects of nature or transform transform visible forms into a pattern resembling the original model. also: the formal qualities of this project.

helladic

pertaining to the bronze age
culture of the mainland of ancient greece (2900-1100BCE)

minoan

Prosperous civilization on the Aegean island of Crete in the second millennium B.C.E. The Minoans engaged in far-flung commerce around the Mediterranean and exerted powerful cultural influences on the early Greeks. (p. 73)

Bronze Age

...

Fresco

a painting technique in which water based pigments are applied to a surface of wet plaster.

Mt. Olympus

Mythical home of the highest Greek gods and goddesses, Highest Mountain in Greece

Grave circle

A burial area inside the Lions Gate. Consist of gold, jewlery, faced mask and important people such as Kings and their families

Sir arthur evans

(1851 - 1941): British archeologist who unearthed the remains of the Minoan civilization (Knossos) on the island of Crete., excavated Knossos

heinrich schliemann

German archaeologist who discovered nine superimposed city sites of Troy

the illiad and the odyssey

The Epic poems by Homer about the "Dark Age" heros of Greece who fought at Troy. The poems were written down in the eighth century B.C.E after centuries of being sung by bards.

zeus

king of the gods

Hera

zeus's wife and sister, queen of the gods

artemis

goddess of the moon and hunting

athena

goddess of wisdom and civilization

poseidon

god of the sea and earthquakes (brother of zeus)

apollo

god of the sun, creativity, and the fine arts

aphrodite

goddess of love and beauty

dionysos

god of wine

hermes

god of commerce;also messenger of the gods

acropolis

the cintadel of an ancient city, located at its highest point and consisting of temples , a treasury , and sometimes a royal palace. the most famous the most famous is the acropolis in athens, where the ruins of the parthenon can be found.

centaur

(classical mythology) a mythical being that is half man and half horse

Krater

an ancient Greek wide-mouthed bowl for mixing wine and water

black figure painting

In early Greek pottery, the silhouetting of dark figures against a light background of natural, reddish clay, with linear details incised through the silhouettes.

red figure painting

In later Greek pottery, the silhouetting of red figures against a black background, with painted linear details; the reverse of black-figure painting.

slip

a mixture of clay and water applied to a ceramic object as a final decorative coat.

palmettes

a fan shaped petal design used as decoration on classical greek vases.

ceramic

wares made of baked clay

kylix

a shallow greek vessel or cup, used for drinking, with a wide mouth and small handles near the rim.

hydria

a large ancient greek and roman jar with three handles (horizontal ones at both sides and one vertical at the back), used for storing water.

naturalism

a style of depiction in which the physical appearance of the rendered image in nature is the primary inspiration. a naturalistic work appears to record the visible world.

nike

goddess of victory

mosaic

art consisting of a design made of small pieces of colored stone or glass

alexander the great

son of Philip II; received military training in Macedonian army and was a student of Aristotle; great leader; conquered much land in Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia; goal was to conquer the known world

idealism

elevated ideals or conduct

contraposto

a pose in which the weight of the body is balanced on one leg while the other is freee and relaxed

peplos

the traditional garment of Greek women; a sleeveless typically ankle-length tunic formed from a single squarish piece of wool/ generally worn pinned at the shoulders and belted.

athena parthenos

cult statue made by Phidias located in the cella of the Parthenon. It was about 40 feet tall.

caryatid

a female figure that functions as a supporting column

peloponnesian war

a war in which Athens and its allies were defeated by the league centered on Sparta

lost wax technique

a method of casting metal, such as bronze, by a process in which a wax mold is covered with clay and plaster, then fired, melting the wax and leaving a hollow form. Molten metal is then poured into the hollow space and slowly cooled. When the hardened clay and plaster exterior shell is removed, a solid metal form remains to be smoothed and polished.

classical

...

elgin marbles

a collection of classical Greek marble sculptures and fragments of architecture created by Phidias

tesserae

the small piece of stone, glass, or other object that is pieced together with many others to create a mosaic

praxiteles

ancient Greek sculptor (circa 370-330 BC), a sculptor who lived after Phidias who sculpted figures that were more lifelike and natural in form and size.

perikles

Leader in Athens during its Golden Age, patron of the arts encouraging public images of peace, prosperity, and power. Convinced the people to rebuild the Acropolis to honor Athena.

polykleitos

High Classical Sculptor; devised mathematical formula for representing the perfect male body; famous work=Doryphoros (bronze statue of young man holding spear)

panathenaic festival

was the festival honoring the goddess Athena, warrior goddess of wisdom and the intellect and patroness of the city of Athens. The festival occurred every four years and was characterized by a procession which passed through the city on a sacred way and concluded outside the Parthenon on the Acropolis. It was also celebrated by athletic games and sacrifices of one hundred cattle.

canon of polykleitos

Theories about the harmonious proportions of the bodies; there is agreement in mathematical and natural harmony. Head is ⅛ of the body.

foreshortening

The use of perspective to represent in art the apparent visual contraction of an object that extends back in space at an angle to the perpendicular plane of sight.

ionic frieze

contains a continuous block of stonework that may be plain or sculpted

bronze casting

model in clay, coated in wax, cover in a mould, melt the wax out, fill with bronze, let solidify and break clay away

orkhestra

large circular dancing area in the center of ancient Greek theaters, where the chorus and occasionally actors moved

modeling

process of creating illusion if 3 dimensionality on a 2 dimensional surface

shading

graded markings that indicate light or shaded areas in a drawing or painting

expressionism

showing feelings though art by use of color; painting reflect's artist's state of mind

undercutting

a technique in sculpture by which the material is cut back under the edges so that the remaining form projects strongly forward, casting deep shadows.

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