any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
The individual with the unknown genotype is bred with a homozygous recessive individual. (test cross)
Variation measured on a continuum rather than in discrete units or categories (eg height in human beings).
the interchange of sections between pairing homologous chromosomes during the prophase of meiosis
Considers 2 different alleles from each parent
characteristics that have either one phenotype or another eg. tongue rolling, eye colour etc.
an allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present
A mutation in the sex cells. Can be inherited.
genetic makeup of an organism
the process of random segregation and assortment of chromosomes
law of segregation
members of a pair of homologous chromosomes separate during the formation of gametes and are distributed to different gametes so that every gamete receives only one member of the pair
cell divison that produces gametes
inheritance of a single trait, controlled by alleles of a single gene
any agent (physical or environmental) that can induce a genetic mutation or can increase the rate of mutation. (mutagens are, ionising radiation, viruses & microbes, environmental poisons, alcolol and diet.)
a permanent change in the genetic code.
The physical expression of a gene
an allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
The alternate form of a gene
the exchange of alleles between homologous chromosomes.
chromosomes that code for gender (XX =female XY=male)
mutation in body cells. These can not be inherited
The individual with the unknown genotyoe is bred with a homozygous recessive individual. (back cross)
any difference between individuals of the same species
Mutations that produce changes in a single gene
Either changes in structure of a chromosome or the loss of an entire chromosome
Individuals select for desired phenotypes in mates. (prefereble traits will become more common in the gene pool)
Significance of meiosis
ensures that offspring have the correct amount of chromosomes in the somatic cells
Stages of Meiosis
interphase, prophase1, metaphase1, anaphase1, telophase1, prophase2, metaphase2, anaphase2, telophase2,
term used to refer to an organism that has two different alleles for the same trait eg Bb
term used to refer to an organism that has the same alleles for one trait, having two identical alleles for a trait eg BB, bb
a genetically determind characterisitc.
the change in an organism over time
inherited characteristic that increases an organism's chance of survival
how often a form of a gene appears in a gene pool
selection by humans for breeding of useful traits from the natural variation among different organisms
change in allele frequencies as a result of the migration of a small subgroup of a population forming a new population
a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment
The gradual changes in gene frequencies in a population due to random events
exchange of genes between populations
movement of individuals (and therefore alleles) into a population
movement of individuals (and therefore alleles) out of a population
Genetic drift resulting from a drastic reduction in population size
extremes variations are selected against.
one extreme is selected for
extreme phenotypes are selected for over the intermediate forms.