EMT Chapter 14

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College of the Canyons EMT 1

ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

A TERM USED TO DESCRIBE A GROUP OF SYMPTOMS CAUSED BY MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA; INCLUDES ANGINA AND MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

A HEART ATTACK; DEATH OF HEART MUSCLE FOLLOWING OBSTRUCTION OF BLOOD FLOW TO IT. ACUTE IN THIS CONTEXT MEANS "NEW" OR "HAPPENING RIGHT NOW"

ANGINA PECTORIS

TRANSIENT (SHORT-LIVED) CHEST DISCOMFORT CAUSED BY PARTIAL OR TEMPORARY BLOCKAGE OF BLOOD FLOW TO THE HEART MUSCLE.

ANTERIOR

THE FRONT SURFACE OF THE BODY; THE SIDE FACING YOU IN THE ANATOMIC POSITION

AORTA

THE MAIN ARTERY, WHICH RECEIVES BLOOD FROM THE LEFT VENTRICLE AND DELIVERS IT TO ALL THE OTHER ARTERIES THAT CARRY BLOOD TO THE TISSUES OF THE BODY.

AORTIC ANEURYSM

A WEAKNESS IN THE WALL OF HE AORTA THAT MAKES IT SUSCEPTIBLE TO RUPTURE.

AORTIC VALVE

THE ONE-WAY VALVE THAT LIES BETWEEN THE LEFT VENTRICLE AND THE AORTA AND KEEPS BLOOD FROM FLOWING BACK INTO THE LEFT VENTRICLE AFTER THE LEFT VENTRICLE EJECTS ITS BLOOD INTO THE AORTA; ONE OF THE FOUR HEART VALVES.

ARRHYTHMIA

AN IRREGULAR OR ABNORMAL HEART RHYTHM.

ASYSTOLE

THE COMPLETE ABSENCE OF HEART ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY

ATHEROSCLEROSIS

A DISORDER IN WHICH CHOLESTEROL AND CALCIUM BUILD UP INSIDE THE WALLS OF THE BLOOD VESSELS, EVENTUALLY LEADING TO PARTIAL OR COMPLETE BLOCKAGE OF BLOOD FLOW.

ATRIUM

ONE OF TWO (RIGHT AND LEFT) UPPER CHAMBERS OF THE HEART.THE RIGHT ATRIUM RECEIVES BLOOD FROM THE VENA CAVA AND DELIVERS IT TO THE RIGHT VENTRICLE. THE LEFT ATRIUM RECEIVES BLOOD FROM PULMONARY VEINS AND DELIVERS IT TO THE LEFT VENTRICLE.

AUTOMATICITY

THE ABILITY OF CARDIAC MUSCLE CELLS TO CONTRACT WITHOUT STIMULATION FROM THE NERVOUS SYSTEM.

AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

THE PART OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM THAT CONTROLS THE INVOLUNTARY ACTIVITIES OF THE BODY SUCH AS THE HEART RATE, BLOOD PRESSURE AND DIGESTION OF FOOD.

BRADYCARDIA

A SLOW HEART, LESS THAN 60BPM

CARDIAC ARREST

A STATE IN WHICH THE HEART FAILS TO GENERATE EFFECTIVE AND DETECTABLE BLOOD FLOW; PULSES ARE NOT PALPABLE IN CARDIAC ARREST, EVEN IF MUSCULAR AND ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY CONTINUES IN THE HEART.

CARDIOGENIC SHOCK

A STATE IN WHICH NOT ENOUGH OXYGEN IS DELIVERED TO THE TISSUES OF THE BODY CAUSED BY LOW OUTPUT OF BLOOD FROM THE HEART. IT CAN BE A SEVERE COMPLICATION OF A LARGE ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION, AS WELL AS OTHER CONDITIONS.

CARDIAC OUTPUT

A MEASURE OF THE VOLUME OF BLOOD CIRCULATED BY THE HEART IN 1 MINUTE, CALCULATED BY MULTIPLYING THE STROKE VOLUME BY THE HEART RATE.

CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE (CHF)

A DISORDER IN WHICH THE HEART LOSES PART OF IT'S ABILITY TO EFFECTIVELY PUMP BLOOD, USUALLY AS A RESULT OF DAMAGE TO THE HAET MUSCLE AND USUALLY RESULTING IN A BACKUP OF FLUID INTO THE LUNGS.

CORONARY ARTERIES

THE BLOOD VESSELS THAT CARRY BLOOD AND NUTRIENTS TO THE HEART MUSCLE.

DEFIBRILLATE

TO SHOCK A FIBRILLATING (CHAOTICALLY BEATING) HEART WITH SPECIALIZED ELECTRICAL CURRENT IN AN ATTEMPT TO RESTORE A NORMAL, RHYTHMIC BEAT..

DEPENDENT EDEMA

SWELLING IN THE PART OF THE BODY CLOSEST TO THE GROUND, CAUSED BY COLLECTION OF FLUID IN THE TISSUES; A POSSIBLE SIGN OF CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE.

DILATION

WIDENING OF A TUBULAR STRUCTURE SUCH AS A CORONARY ARTERY

DISSECTING ANEURYSM

A CONDITION IN WHICH THE INNER LAYERS OF AN ARTERY, SUCH AS THE AORTA BECOME SEPARATED, ALLOWING BLOOD (AT HIGH PRESSURES) TO FLOW BETWEEN THE LAYERS.

HYPERTENSIVE EMERGENCY

AN EMERGENCY SITUATION CREATED BY EXCESSIVELY HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE, WHICH CAN LEAD TO SERIOUS COMPLICATIONS SUCH AS STROKE OR ANEURYSM.

INFARCTION

DEATH OF A BODY TISSUE, USUALLY CAUSED BY INTERRUPTION OF ITS BLOOD SUPPLY.

INFERIOR

THE PART OF THE BODY OR ANY BODY PART NEARER TO THE FEET.

ISCHEMIA

A LACK OF OXYGEN THAT DEPRIVES TISSUES OF NECESSARY NUTRIENTS, RESULTING FROM PARTIAL OR COMPLETE BLOCKAGE OF BLOOD FLOW; POTENTIALLY REVERSIBLE BECAUSE PERMANENT INJURY HAS NOT YET OCCURRED.

LUMEN

THE INSIDE DIAMETER OR AN ARTERY OR OTHER HOLLOW STRUCTURE.

MYOCARDIUM

THE HEART MUSCLE

OCCLUSION

A BLOCKAGE, USUALLY OF A TUBULAR STRUCTURE SUCH AS A BLOOD VESSEL

PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

THE PART OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM THAT CONTROLS VEGETATIVE FUNCTIONS SUCH AS DIGESTION OF FOOD AND RELAXATION.

PERFUSION

THE FLOW OF BLOOD THROUGH BODY TISSUES AND VESSELS

POSTERIOR

THE BACK SIDE OF THE BODY; THE SIDE AWAY FROM YOU IN THE STANDARD ANATOMIC POSITION

STROKE VOLUME

THE VOLUME OF BLOOD EJECTED WITH EACH VENTRICULAR CONTRACTION

SUPERIOR

THE PART OF THE BODY OR ANY BODY PART NEARER TO THE HEAD

SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

THE PART OF THE AUTONOMIC NEROUS SYSTEM THAT CONTROLS ACTIVE FUNCTIONS SUCH AS RESPONDING TO FEAR (FIGHT OR FLIGHT SYSTEM).

SYNCOPE

A FAINTING SPELL OR TRANSIENT LOSS OF CONSCIOUSNESS

TACHYCARDIA

A RAPID HEART RATE, MORE THAN 100BPM

THROMBOEMBOLISM

A BLOOD CLOT THAT HAS FORMED WITHIN A BLOOD VESSEL AND IS FLOATING WITHIN THE BLOOD STREAM.

VENTRICLE

ONE OF TWO (RIGHT AND LEFT) LOWER CHAMBERS OF THE HEART.

VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION

DISORGANIZED, INEFFECTIVE TWITCHING OF THE VENTRICLES, RESULTING IN NO BLOOD FLOW AND A STATE OF CARDIAC ARREST.

VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA

A RAPID HEART RHYTHM IN WHICH THE ELECTRICAL IMPULSE BEGINS IN THE VENTRICLE (INSTEAD OF THE ATRIUM), WHICH MAY RESULT IN INADEQUATE BLOOD FLOW AND EVENTUALLY DETERIORATE INTO CARDIAC ARREST.

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