What is the environment? What does it include? (9)
the natural world -
1) geography (topography)
What is "environmental history"?
the study of how...
1) the natural world has shaped the evolution/history of human species in various places/times
2) humans have altered the natural world to their benefit/demise in various places/times
3) human relationship/attitudes towards the environment have changed/evolved over time (be one with nature until the Industrial Revolution)
4) the environment has changed over time and how that in turn has affected human history
Once people began to settle down, there was an ____ effect on the environment. Why?
2) because they needed to cut down trees to build houses
From the Industrial Revolution onward, nature was viewed...
for the service of man
What are 5 misconceptions about "environmental history"?
1) it's a new discipline
2) it started with Rachel Carson's "Silent Spring" in 1962
3) it started during the Industrial Revolution
4) it is only concerned with conservation/recycling resources
5) it is focused solely on global warming
To understand civilizations better, one should always start with its ____.
Mesopotamia has the ____ ____.
The Impact of Humans on Environment (5)
1) Population growth and migration - Stress/limit environment
2) Invasive species - contamination; plants not native (out of control species)
3) Industrialization - mining (forced erosion)
4) Economic activity - deforestation
Impact of Environment on Humans (6)
1) water sources/usage
4) available resources/usage
5) physical geography
6) climatic changes/weather systems
Why is everything to the benefit of Eurasia?
east-west axis; continents connected
Where were the most seeds available for domestication found?
How many animals were available for domestication? Where were the majority of them found and how many (%) were there?
1) 148 species
2) they had to weigh over 100 lbs
3) Eurasia - 18% available
What were animals used for?
food, clothing, labor
Requirements of Animal Domestication (6)
1) diet humans can supply (picky diets; a large supply of food; worth it?)
2) rapid growth rate +100 lbs.
3) ability to breed in captivity (choosing a mate based on something)
4) tractable disposition (easily led)
5) submissive social structure (leader - recognize human being as alpha)
6) do not panic when enclosed (fence)
What are 2 advantages of the East-West axis as a result of being on the same hemisphere?
1) small climatic variation
2) facilitates idea diffusion
What are the 3 ways ideas spread?
1) peaceful diffusion via contact - trade, migration of people (Silk Roads)
2) non-peaceful diffusion via war - capturing those with knowledge (Mongols)
3) "illegal" diffusion via espionage - smuggling ideas, technology outside of a country (silk worm)
How can spreading disease from animals be used to a society's advantage?
people may die, but eventually the rest of that civilization develop an immunity while other civilizations don't >> when conquering other places, the conquered will also die from unknown diseases, while the conquerors will already be immune to it
Describe hunter-gatherer societies.
simple and basic
Describe societies based on agriculture.
developed technology (writing, metallurgy, weaponry)
competition with other societies
population growth/density (more germs >> immunity)
What did hunter-gatherer societies mainly focus on?
Civilizations focused on ____.
When individuals work to get ahead, the society moves ____.
How do civilizations think compared to hunter-gatherer groups?
they had a forward type of thinking, while hunter-gatherers thought about the "here and now"