the period following the Bronze Age; characterized by rapid spread of iron tools and weapons
introduced iron, made weapons, destroyed by "Sea peoples",,, indo euros. who settled inanatolia around 2000 bc
Formerly named Amenhotep, he was a pharaoh who changed Egyptian religion to revolve around the sun god, and moved the capital.
known as greatest pharaoh ever, ruled for 67 years, created treaty with Hittites (first treaty in history), establish ownership borders of Isreal, largest tomb, ruled while Jews were there
Prosperous civilization on the Aegean island of Crete in the second millennium B.C.E. The Minoans engaged in far-flung commerce around the Mediterranean and exerted powerful cultural influences on the early Greeks. (p. 73)
an ancient city is southern Greece
A term used for the burial sites of elite members of Mycenaean Greek society in the mid-second millennium B.C.E. At the bottom of deep shafts lined with stone slabs, the bodies were laid out along with gold and bronze jewelry, implements, and weapons (75
the modern name for the script, composed of signs and pictures, in which Mycenaean Greeks kept records on tablets of clay.
An empire extending from western Iran to Syria-Palestine, conquered by the Assyrians of northern Mesopotamia between the tenth and seventh centuries B.C.E. They used force and terror and exploited the wealth and labor of their subjects. (93)
Library of Ashurbanipal
A large collection of writings drawn from the ancient literary, religious, and scientific traditions of Mesopotamia. It was assembled by the sixth century B.C.E. Assyrian ruler Ashurbanipal. (98)
an ancient kingdom of the Hebrew tribes at the southeastern end of the Mediterranean Sea
A collection of sacred books containing diverse materials concerning the origins, experiences, beliefs, and practices of the Israelites. Most of the extant text was compiled by members of the priestly class in the fifth century B.C.E. (99)
A monumental sanctuary built in Jerusalem by King Solomon in the tenth century B.C.E. to be the religious center for the Israelite god Yahweh. The Temple priesthood conducted sacrifices, received a tithe or percentage of agricultural revenues. (102)
the dispersion of the Jews outside Israel
"carriers of civilization"; located on eastern Mediterranean coast; invented the alphabet which used sounds rather than symbols like cuneiform
Under the Chaldaeans, Babylon again became a major political and cultural center in the seventh and sixth centuries bce. After participating in the destruction of Assyrian power, Nabopolassar and Nebuchadnezzar took over the southern portion of the Assyrian domains. by destroying the First Temple in Jerusalem and deporting part of the population, they initiated the Diaspora of the Jews.
leader of the chaldeans, tried to recapture the glory of ancient babylon, short-lived but impressive
Third ruler of the Persian Empire (r. 521-486 B.C.E.). He crushed the widespread initial resistance to his rule and gave all major government posts to Persians rather than to Medes.
Founder of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. Between 550 and 530 B.C.E. he conquered Media, Lydia, and Babylon. Revered in the traditions of both Iran and the subject peoples.
a governor of a province in ancient Persia
an ancient city that was the capital of the ancient Persian Empire
system of religion founded in Persia in the 6th century BC by Zoroaster
Heavily armored Greek infantryman of the Archaic and Classical periods who fought in the close-packed phalanx formation. Hoplite armies-militias composed of middle- and upper-class citizens supplying their own equipment: Superior to all other forces 128
a ruler or person who has complete power and uses it in cruel or unjust ways
the political orientation of those who favor government by the people or by their elected representatives
the act of losing or surrendering something as a penalty for a mistake or fault or failure to perform etc.
the ancient greek known as the father of history
Athenian leader noted for advancing democracy in Athens and for ordering the construction of the Parthenon.
Conflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire, ranging from the Ionian Revolt (499-494 B.C.E.) through Darius's punitive expedition that failed at Marathon. Chronicled by Herodotus. (131)
Greek and Phoenician warship of the fifth and fourth centuries B.C.E. It was sleek and light, powered by 170 oars arranged in three vertical tiers. Manned by skilled sailors, it was capable of short bursts of speed and complex maneuvers. (p. 132)
Greek philosopher; socratic method--questioning; sentenced to death for corrupting Athens youth
Conflict between Athenian And Spartan Alliances. The war was largely a consequence of Athenian imperialism. Possession of a naval empire allowed Athens to fight a war of attrition. Ultimately, Sparta prevailed because of Athenian errors/Persian $$$ (135)
Alexander the Great
son of Philip II; received military training in Macedonian army and was a student of Aristotle; great leader; conquered much land in Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia; goal was to conquer the known world
Greek culture spread across western Asia and northeastern Africa after the conquests of Alexander the Great. The period ended with the fall of the last major Hellenistic kingdom to Rome, but Greek cultural influence persisted until the spread of Islam.
a scientist and scholar from the great Egyptian city of Alexandria, developed a system of astronomy and geography - the Ptolemaic system - based on the belief the sun the planets and the stars revolved around the earth
City on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt founded by Alexander. It became the capital of the Hellenistic kingdom of Ptolemy. It contained the famous Library and the Museum and was a center for leading scientific and literary figures in the classical and postclassical eras.
female pharaoh who expanded Egypt through trade