Structure of the Generalized Cell

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Plasma Membrane (Structure)

A lipid bilayer composed of phospholipds and cholesterol with proteins that extend across or are embedded in either surface of the lipid bilayer.

Cytoplasm aka Cytosol (Structure)

Water with dissolved ions and molecules as well colloid with suspended proteins.

Cytoskeleton Micro-tubules (Structure)

Part of the cytoplasm. Hollow cylinders composed of the protein tubulin. 25nm in diameter

Actin Filaments (Structure)

Part of the cytoplasm. Small fibrils of the protein actin. 8nm in diameter

Intermediate Filaments (Structure)

Part of the cytoplasm. Protein fibers. 10 nm in diameter.

Cytoplasmic Inclusions (Structure)

Part of the cytoplasm. Aggregates of molecules either made or ingested by the cell; may be membrane -bound.

Plasma Membrane (Function)

It is the outer boundary of cells that controls the entry and exit of substances in and out of cells.
Contains Receptor molecules that function in inter-cellular communication.
Contains Marker molecules that enable cells to recognize one another.

Cytoplasm (Function)

Part of the cytoplasm. It contains enzymes that catalyze decomposition and synthesis of reactions. ATP is produced in glycolysis reactions.

What makes up the cytosol? (not organelles)

Cytoskeleton Microtubules; Actin Filaments; Intermediate Fibers, and Cytoplasmic Inclusions

Cytoskeleton Micro-tubules (Function)

Part of the cytoplasm. It provides support to cytoplasm and form centrioles, spindle fibers, flagella, and cilia.
It is responsible for the movement of structures in the cell.

Actin Filaments (Function)

Part of the cytoplasm. Provides structural support to cells, support microvilli, responsible for cell movement.

Intermediate (Function)

Part of the cytoplasm. Provides structural support to cells.

Cytoplasmic Inclusions (Function)

The function depends on the molecules: energy storage (lipids, glycogen); oxygen transport (hemoglobin); skin color (melanin) and others.

Parts of a nucleus

Nuclear Envelope, Nuclear Pores, Chromatin, Nucleolus

Nuclear Envelope (Structure)

Part of the nucleus. Double membrane that surrounds the nucleus (enclose nucleus).
The outer membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum.
The nuclear pores extend through nuclear envelope

Chromatin (Structure)

Part of the nucleus. Dispersed, thin strands of DNA, histones, and other proteins; condenses to form chromosomes during cell division.

Nucleolus (Structure)

Part of the nucleus. One or more dense bodies consisting of rRNA and proteins

Nuclear Envelope (Function)

Separates nucleus from cytoplasm...serves as a boundary. Regulates movement of materials in and out of the nucleus.

Chromatin (Function)

DNA regulates protein synthesis and therefore the chemical reactions of the cell. DNA is the genetic, or hereditary, material

Nucleolus (Function)

Part of the nucleus. Serves as the assembly site of large and small ribosomal subunits.

What are the parts of the Cytoplasmic Organelles?

Ribosome; Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum; Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum; Golgi Apparatus; Secretory Vesicles; Lysosomes; Peroxisome; Proteasomes; Mitochondria; Centrioles; Spindle Fibers; Cilia; Flagellum; and Microvilli

Ribosome (Structure)

rRNA and proteins form these large and small subunits that are attached to the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum. Free ribosomes can be found across the cytoplasm

Ribosome (Function)

Serves as the site of protein synthesis

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (Structure)

Membranous tubules and flattened sacs with ribosomes attached.

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (Structure)

Membranous tubules and flattened sacs w/o ribosomes attached.

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (Function)

Serves as the site of protein synthesis b/c ribosomes are present. After protein synthesis, proteins are transported to the Golgi Apparatus.

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (Function)

Manufactures Lipids and CHO; detoxifies harmful chemical; and stores calcium.

Golgi Apparatus (Structure)

Flattened Membrane Sacs stacked on each other.

Golgi Apparatus (Function)

Modifies, packages, and distributes proteins and lipids for secretion or internal use.

Secretory Vesicles (Structure)

Membrane bound sac pinched off the Golgi Apparatus.

Secretory Vesicles (Function)

Carries proteins and lipids to cell surface for secretion.

Lysosome (Structure)

Membrane bound vesicle pinched off the Golgi Apparatus.

Lysosome (Function)

Contains digestive enzymes

Peroxisome (Structure)

Membrane bound vesicle

Peroxisome (Function)

One site of lipid and amino acid degradation; breaks down hydrogen peroxide.

Proteasomes (Structure)

Tube-like proteins complex in the cytoplasm.

Proteasomes (Functions)

Breaks down proteins in the cytoplasm.

Mitochondria (Structure)

Spherical, rod shapes, or threadlike structures; enclosed by double membrane; inner membrane form projections called cristae.

Mitochondria (Function)

Powerhouse of a cell. Major site of ATP synthesis when oxygen is available.

Centrioles (Structure)

Pair of cylindrical organelles in the centrosome; consisting of triplets of parallel microtubules.

Centrioles (Function)

Center for microtubule formation; determines cell polarity during cell division; form the basal body of cilia and flagella

Spindle Fibers (Structure)

Microtubules extending from the centrosome to chromosomes and other parts of the body.

Spindle Fibers (Function)

Assist in the separation of chromosomes during cell division.

Cilia (Structure)

Extensions of the plasma membrane containing doublets of parallel microtubules

Cilia (Function)

Move materials over the surface of the cell.

Flagellum (Structure)

Extensions of the plasma membrane containing doublets of parallel microtubules.

Flagellum (Function)

In Humans (male), responsible for the movement of sperms.

Microvilli (Structure)

Extension of the plasma membrane containing microfilaments.

Microvilli (Function)

Increase surface area of the plasma membrane for absorption and secretion; modified to form sensory receptors

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