AP Human Geography- Unit 4, Part 2

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Ethnic conflict

An ethnic conflict is a war between ethnic groups often as a result of ethnic nationalism or fight over natural resources. Ethnic conflict often includes genocide. It can also be caused by boundary disputes

European Union

Supranational organization of nearly 25 member-states in Europe that have integrated for improved economic and political cooperation

Exclave

A portion of a state that is separated from the main territory and surrounded by another country.

Federal state

An internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government.

Forward capital

A forward capital is a symbolically relocated capital city usually because of either economic or strategic reasons. A forward capital is sometimes used to integrate outlying parts of a country into the state. An example would be Brasília

Fragmented state

A state that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory.

Frontier

A zone separating two states in which neither state exercises political control.

Geopolitics

The state's power to control space or territory and shape the foreign policy of individual states and international political relations

Geopolitical Theory (AKA Organic, Ratzel's)

Theory that states are living organisms that hunger for land and, like organisms, want to grow larger by acquiring more nourishment in the form of land

Geometric political boundary

A boundary between two states that does not follow geography, but rather geometry

Gerrymander

Process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power.

Global commons

is that which no one person or state may own or control and which is central to life. A global common contains an infinite potential with regard to the understanding and advancement of the biology and society of all life. (Forests, oceans, land mass and cultural identity)

Immigrant states

An immigrant state is a type of receiving state which is the target of many immigrants. Immigrant states are popular because of their economy, political freedom, and opportunity. One example would be the USA.

Imperialism

Control of territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous society.

Irredentism

The policy of a state wishing to incorporate within itself territory inhabited by people who have ethnic or linguistic links with the country but that lies within a neighboring state.

Landlocked

A state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea.

Locational/positional boundary dispute

In political geography, a disagreement between neighboring states over policies to be applied to their common border; often induced by differing customs regulations, movement of nomadic groups, or illegal immigration or emigration.

Mackinder's Heartland Theory

A geopolitical hypothesis, proposed by British geographer Halford Mackinder during the first two decades of the twentieth century, that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain sufficient strength to eventually dominate the world. Mackinder further proposed that since Eastern Europe controlled access to the Eurasian interior, its ruler would command the vast "heartland" to the east.

Median-line principle

statement in UNCLOS declaring that when there is not enough water for each country on opposite sides of the sea to have 200 nautical miles of exclusive economic zone, the two or more countries involved will divide the water evenly

Microstate

(SYN: Ministate) A state that encompasses a very small land area.

Ministate

(SYN: Microstate) An imprecise term for a state or territory small in both population and area. An informal definition accepted by the United Nations suggests a maximum of 1 million population combined with a territory of less than 700km2 (270sq mi).

Multinational state

State that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities.

Nation

Identity with a group of people that share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular place as a result of being born there.

Nationalism

Loyalty and devotion to a particular nationality.

National iconography

figural representations, either individual or symbolic, religious or secular; more broadly, the art of representation by pictures or images, which may or may not have a symbolic as well as an apparent or superficial meaning

Nation-state

A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

Military alliance of democratic states in Europe and North America.

Operational/functional boundary dispute

In political geography, disagreement between states over the control of surface area.

Organization of American States

The OAS is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C. Its members are the thirty-five independent states of the Americas. It is the world's oldest regional organization.

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