Chapt 1-4 Review

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Levels of organization: tissue, cell, organ, molecule, organism, organ system. What is the correct order?

Molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism

The study of the structure of tissue is called...

-cytology
-HISTOLOGY
-organology
-gross anatomy

The increasingly forceful labor contractions during childbirth are an example of...

-negative feedback
-effector shutdown
-POSITIVE FEEDBACK
-receptor activation

Failure of homeostatic regulation in the body results in...

-DISEASE
-auto regulation
-positive feedback
-extrinsic regulation

A plane through the body that passes perpendicular to the long axis of the body and divides the body into a superior and inferior section is a...

-sagittal section
-TRANSVERSE SECTION
-coronal section
-frontal section

In which body cavity would you find each of the following organs?
a) heart
b) small intestine, large intestine
c) lung
d) kidneys

a) heart-pericardial cavity
b) small and large intestines-peritoneal cavity
c) lungs-pleural cavity
d) kidneys-abdominal (abdominopelvic) cavity

The mediastinum is the region between the...

-lungs and heart
-TWO PLEURAL CAVITIES
-chest and abdomen
-heart and pericardium

The subdivisions of the ventral body cavity are located within the...

-pleural cavity and pericardial cavity
-coelom and peritoneal cavity
-pleural cavity and peritoneal cavity
-THORACIC CAVITY AND ABDOMINOPELVIC CAVITY

Which of the following is not an example of negative feedback?

-Increased pressure in the aorta triggers mechanisms to lower blood pressure.
-A rise in blood calcium levels triggers the release of a hormone that lowers blood calcium levels.
-A RISE IN ESTROGEN DURING THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE INCREASES THE NUMBER OF PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS IN THE UTERUS.
-Increased blood sugar stimulates the release of a hormone from the pancreas that stimulates the liver to store blood sugar.

Anatomy

study of the structure of the body

Physiology

the study of function; deals with the ways organisms perform vital activities

anatomical position

an anatomical reference position; the body viewed from the anterior surface with the palms facing forward

autoregulation vs. extrinsic regulation

AUTOREGULATION: changes in activity that maintain homeostasis in direct response to changes in the local environment; does not require neural or endocrine control.
EXTRINSIC REGULATION: results from the activities of the nervous system or endocrine system.

The lightest of an atom's main components...

-CARRIES A NEGATIVE CHARGE
-carries a positive charge
-plays no part in the atom's chemical reactions
-is found only in the nucleus

Isotopes of an elemnt differ from each other in the number of...

-protons in the nucleus
-NEUTRONS IN THE NUCLEUS
-electron in the outer shells
-all are correct

The number and arrangement of electrons in an atom's outer energy level determines the atom's...

-atomic weight
-atomic number
-molecular weight
-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

All organic compounds in the human body contain all of the following elements except...

-hydrogen
-oxygen
-carbon
-CALIUM

A substance containing atoms of different elements that are bonded together is called a(n)...

-molecule
-COMPOUND
-mixture
-isotope
-solution

All the chemical reactions that occur in the human body are collectively referred to as...

-anabolism
-catabolism
-METABOLISM
-homeostasis

decomposition reaction

break chemical bonds; AB becomes A + B

The speed, or rate, of a chemical reaction is influenced by...

-the presence of catalysts
-the temperature
-the concentration of the reactants
-ALL ARE CORRECT

A pH of the 7.8 in the human body typifies a condition referred to as...

-acidosis
-ALKALOSIS
-dehydration
-homeostasis

A(n) _____ is a solue that dissociates to release hydrogen ions, and a(n) _____ is a solute that removes hydrogen ions from solution.

-base, acid
-salt, base
-acid, salt
-ACID, BASE

Chemical reactions in the human body are controlled by special catalytic molecules called

-ENZYMES
-cytozymes
-cofactors
-activators
-cytochromes

Which of the following is not a function of a protein?

-support
-transport
-metabolic regulation
-STORAGE OF GENETIC INFORMATION

Complementary base pairing in DNA incudes the pairs...

adenine-thymine and cytosine-guanine

If a polypeptide contains 10 peptide bonds, how many amino acids does it contain?

-zero
-five
-ten
-ELEVEN
-twelve

A dehydration synthesis reaction between glycerol and a single fatty acid would yield a(n)...

-micelle
-omega-3 fatty acid
-MONOGLYCERIDE
-diglyceride
-triglyceride

enzyme

a protein that catalyzes specific biochemical reactions by lowering a reaction's activation energy

salt

an inorganic compound consisting of a cation other than H+ and an anion other than OH-, the dissociation of some salts makes a solution slightly acidic or slightly basic.

nonpolar covalent bonds

involve equal sharing of electrons because atoms involved have equal pull for the electrons

polar covalent bonds

involve unequal sharing of electrons because one of the atoms involved in the bond has a disproportionately strong pull on the electrons, like water

ionic bonds

involves a cation (positive charge), which loses one or more electrons and an anion (negative charge), which gains those electrons; cation gives, anion receives; attraction between opposite charges draws the two ions together.

In an exergonic reaction...

-large molecules are broken down into smaller ones.
-small molecules are assembled into larger ones.
-molecules are rearranged to form new molecules.
-molecules move from reactants to products and back.
-ENERGY IS RELEASED DURING THE REACTION.

The hydrogen bonding that occurs in water is responsible for all of the following, except...

-the high boiling point of water.
-the low freezing point of water.
-THE ABILITY OF WATER TO DISSOLVE NONPOLAR SUBSTANCES.
-the ability of water to dissolve inorganic salts.
-the surface tension of water.

The process that transports solid objects such as bacteria into the cell is called...

-pinocytosis
-PHAGOCYTOSIS
-exocytosis
-receptor-mediated endocytosis
-channel-mediated transport

Plasma membranes are said to be...

-impermeable
-freely permeable
-SELECTIVELY PERMEABLE
-actively permeable
-slightly permeable

_____ ion concentrations are high in extracellular fluid, and _____ ion concentrations are high in the cytoplasm.

-calcium, magnesium
-chloride, sodium
-potassium, sodium
-SODIUM, POTASSIUM

In a resting transmembrane potential, the inside of the cell is _____, and the cell exterior is _____.

-SLIGHTLY NEGATIVE, SLIGHTLY POSITIVE
-slightly positive, slight negative
-slightly neutral, slightly positive
-slightly negative, slightly neutral

The construction of a functional polypeptide by using the information in an mRNA strand is...

-TRANSLATION
-transcription
-replication
-gene activation

The organelle responsible for a variety of functions centering around the synthesis of lipids and carbohydrates is...

-golgi apparatus
-rough endoplasmic reticulum
-SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
-mitochondria

Our somatic cell nuclei contain how many pairs of chromosomes?

-eight
-sixteen
-TWENTY-THREE
-forty-six

The movement of water across a membrane from an area of low solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration is known as...

-OSMOSIS
-active transport
-diffusion
-facillitated transport
-filtration

The interphase of the cell life cycle is divided into...

-prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
-G0, G1, S, AND G2.
-mitosis and cytokinesis.
-all of these.

Diffusion is important in body fluids, because it tends to...

-increase local concentration gradients.
-ELIMINATE LOCAL CONCENTRATION GRADIENTS
-move substances against concentration gradients.
-create concentration gradients.

Microvilli are found...

-mostly in muscle cells.
-on the inside of plasma membranes.
-in large numbers on cells that secrete hormones.
-IN CELLS THAT ARE ACTIVELY ENGAGED IN ABSORPTION.
-only on cells lining the reproductive tract.

When a cell is placed in a(n) _____ solution, the cell will lose water through osmosis. This process results in the _____ of red blood cells.

-hypotonic, crenation
-HYPERTONIC, CRENATION
-isotonic, hemolysis
-hypotonic, hemolysis

The sodium potassium exchange pump...

-is an example of facilitated diffusion.
-does not require the input of cellular energy in the form of ATP.
-moves the sodium and potassium ions along their concentration gradients.
-IS COMPOSED OF A CARRIER PROTEIN LOCATED IN THE PLASMA MEMBRANE.
-is not necessary for the maintenance of homeostasis.

If a cell lacked ribosomes, it would not be able to...

-move.
-SYNTHESIZE PROTEINS.
-produce DNA.
-metabolize sugar.
-divide.

List and describe each phase in the interphase stage of the cell life cycle.

-G0: not preparing for division, performing functions appropriate for that particular cell

-G1: normal cell functions plus cell growth, duplication of organelles, protein synthesis

-S: DNA replication, synthesis of histones

-G2: protein synthesis, completion of centriole replication

List and describe the stages of mitosis.

-Prophase: nucleoli disappear, centriole pairs move to cell poles, microtubules (spindle fibers) extend between centriole pairs, nuclear envelope disappears, spindle fibers attach to kinetochore

-Metaphase: chromosomes align a central plane (metaphase plate)

-Anaphase: microtubules pull chromosomes apart, daughter chromosomes group near centrioles

-Telophase: nuclear membranes re-form, chromosomes uncoil, nucleoli reappear, cell has two complete nuclei

cytokinesis

division of cytoplasm, cleavage furrow around metaphase plate, membrane closes, producing daughter cells

facilitated diffusion

passive, carrier proteins transport molecules too large to fit through channel proteins (glucose, amino acid)

A molecule blocks the ion channels in integral proteins in the plasma membrane would interfere with...

-cell recognition.
-the movement of lipid-soluble molecules.
-producing changes in the electrical charges across a plasma membrane.
-THE ABILITY OF PROTEIN HORMONES TO STIMULATE THE CELL.
-the cell's ability to divide.

simple squamous epithelium

flat, one layer, most delicate type of epithelium, located where absorption or diffusion takes place, types are mesothelium (lines ventral body cavities), and endothelium (lines the inner surface of the heart and all bloods vessels).

simple cuboidal epithelium

square-like shape, one layer, provides limited protections and occurs where secretions or absorption takes place, lines portions of the kidney tubules.

simple columnar epithelium

column-shaped, one layer, where absorption or secretion occurs, such as in the small intestine.

stratified squamous epithelium

flat, layered, like layers in a sheet of plywood, located where mechanical stresses are severe,protects against physical and chemical attacks, on the surface of the skin, lining of the mouth, esophagus, and anus.

stratified cuboidal epithelium

stacked cubes, relatively rare, located in sweat and mammary glads.

stratified columnar epithelium

column-shaped and stacked, relatively rare, providing protection along portions of the pharynx, epiglottis, anus and urethra, as well as along a few large excretory ducts.

Collections of specialized cells and cell products that perform a relatively limited number of functions are called...

-cellular aggregates.
-TISSUES
-organs.
-organ systems.
-organsims.

Tissue that is specialized for contraction is...

-epithelial tissue.
-MUSCLE TISSUE.
-connective tissue.
-neural tissue.

A tupe of cell junction common in cardiac and smooth muscle tissues is the...

-hemidesmosome.
-basal junction.
-tight junction
-GAP JUNCTION.

The most abundant connections between cells in the superficial layers of the skin are...

-connexons.
-gap junctions.
-DESMOSOMES.
-tight junctions.

_____ membranes have an epithelium that is stratified and supported by dense connective tissue.

-Synovial
-Serous
-CUTANEOUS
-Mucous

Mucous secretions that coat the passageways of the digestive and respiratory tracts result from _____ secretion

-apocrine
-MEROCRINE
-holocrine
-endocrine

Matrix is a characteristic of which type of tissue?

-epithelial
-neural
-muscle
-CONNECTIVE

Functions of connective tissue include...

-establishing a structural framework for the body.
-storing energy reserves.
-providing protection for delicate organs.
-ALL OF THESE.

Which of the following epithelia most easily permits diffusion?

-stratified squamous
-SIMPLE SQUAMOUS
-transitional
-simple columnar

The type of cartilage growth characterized by adding new layers of cartilage to the surface is...

-interstitial growth.
-APPOSITIONAL GROWTH.
-intramembranous growth.
-longitudinal growth.

The three major types of cartilage in the body are...

-collagen, reticular, and elastic.
-areolar, adipose, and reticular.
-HYALINE, ELASTIC, AND FIBROUS.
-tendons, reticular, and elastic.

The primary function of serous membranes in the body is to...

-MINIMIZE FRICTION BETWEEN OPPOSING SURFACES.
-line cavities that communicate with the exterior.
-perform absorptive and secretory functions.
-cover the surface of the body.

Tissue changes with age can result from...

-hormonal changes.
-increased need for sleep.
-improper nutrition.
-THE FIRST AND THIRD ANSWERS.
-all of these.

Axons, dendrites, and a cell body are characteristic of cells located in...

-NEURAL TISSUE.
-muscle tissue.
-connective tissue.
-epithelial tissue.

The repair process necessary to restore normal function in damaged tissues is...

-isolation.
-REGENERATION.
-reconstruction.
-all of these.

functions of epithelial tissue

1. provide physical protection.
2. control permeability.
3. provide sensation.
4. produce specialized secretions.

difference between endocrine glands and exocrine glands

Endocrine glands secrete discharges into surrounding interstitial fluid, while exocrine glands secrete into an epithelial surface.

the three methods by which glandular epithelial cells release their secretions

1. merocrine, 2. apocrine, and 3. holocrine secretions

the three basic components of connective tissues

1. specialized cells, 2. extracellular protein fibers, and 3. a fluid known as ground substance

the four kinds of membranes composed of epithelial and connective tissue that cover and protect other structures and tissues in the body

1. mucous, 2. serous, 3. cutaneous, and 4. synovial membranes

What two cell populations make up neural tissue?

1. neurons and 2. neuroglia

function of neurons

transmit electrical impulses in the form of changes in the transmembrane potential

function of neuroglia

comprises several kinds of supporting cells and play a role in providing nutrients to neurons

fluid connective tissues

have distinctive populations of cells suspended in a watery matrix that contains dissolved proteins, two types are blood and lymph

A layer of glycoproteins and a network of fine protein filaments that prevents the movement of proteins and other large molecules from the connective tissue of the epithelium describes...

-interfacial canals.
-THE BASEMENT MEMBRANE.
-the reticular lamina.
-areolar tissue.
-squamous epithelium.

Why does damaged cartilage heal slowly?

because cartilage is avascular, so nutrients and other molecules must diffuse to the site of injury.

atomic number

number of protons in an atom

mass number

number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus

atomic weight

the actual mass of an atom

molecular weight

the sum of the atomic weights of its component

microvilli

facilitate absorption of extracellular materials

cilia

movement of material over cell surface

proteasomes

protein synthesis

ribosomes

RNA + proteins, involved in protein synthesis

peroxisomes

enzyme containing vesicles, break down fatty acids and organic compounds, produce hydrogen peroxide, replicate by division

lysosomes

vesicles containing powerful, digestive enzymes, primary lysosome: formed by golgi apparatus and inactive enzymes, secondary lysosome: fused with damaged organelle, digestive enzymes activated, toxic chemicals isolated

golgi apparatus

stacks of flattened membranes (cisternae), modifies and packages secretions, renews or modifies the plasma membrane, packages special enzymes within vesicles for use in the cytoplasm

mitochondria

double membrane with inner membrane folds (cisternae), produces 95% of the ATP required by the cell

endoplasmic reticulum

rough: modifies and packages newly synthesized proteins, smooth: synthesizes lipids and carbohydrates

cytoskeleton

for strength and support, movement of cellular structures and materials, contains microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules

nucleus

control of metabolism; storage and processing of genetic info; control of protein synthesis; contains nucleolus, chromatin, nuclear envelope, and nuclear pore

right upper quadrant

liver, gallbladder, large intestine, small intestine

left upper quadrant

stomach, spleen

right lower quadrant

appendix

left lower quadrant

urinary bladder

Which type of science is the oldest?

biology

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