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Exam #2 Lectures 5-8

3 ways you know a compound is oxidized

-loses electrons
-loses hydrogens
-gains oxygen

What do thiols need to react with in order to be water soluble and why?

strong bases, in order to form water-soluble salts. thiols are weak acids and do not readily dissove in water

Dehydration

forms water, required heat and acid catalysts

oxidation results

aldehyde to carboxylic acid to a ketone

simplest aldehyde?

formaldehyde (methanal)

why are aldehydes and ketones polar molecules?

they both have alkyl groups attached to them which are nonpolar. The overall polarity of the molecule comes from the carboxyl group. The C is partially postive, the O is partially negative

Discuss the BP of aldehydes and ketones

-no hydrogen bonding
-both have a lower BP than alcohol and carboxylic acids of comparable molecular weight
-weak intermolecular forces of attractions

Remove 2 Hydrogens

oxidation

Remove 2 Hydrogens and 1 Oxygen

Dehydration

what does dehydration require?

heat and acid catalyst (H2SO4)

what does oxidation require?

K2CR2O7 and H2SO4

oxygen between 2 carbons:

ether

ethers are polar or nonpolar?

polar

combustion reaction

reacts with O2 to get CO2 + H2O, then balance

Thiols always include

S-H

Can thiols hydrogen bond in water?

Yes

Thiols are weak acids, just like:

phenols

Thiols react to:

strong bases like NaOH to form water soluble salts

Oxidation of 2 thiols =

Disulfide

CH3-S-H H-S-CH2-CH3 to CH3-S-S-CH2-CH3

Reduction of disulfide =

2 thiols

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