Research and Evaluation Exam 1

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Ad/PR Research

Specialized forms of marketing research that focus on the planning, preparation, and placement of advertising or PR.

Model of Communication

Source/Sender- Encoding- Channel Message- Decoding- Receiver- Response-Feedback
*Sender can be client, agency, advertiser, etc
*Research goes into understanding the receiver/consumer.

Encoding

Putting out a message in a symbolic, metaphoric or linguistic form.

Channel

The medium

Decoding

The receiver interprets the message

Benefits of research for Strat Comm

1.Save money by avoiding bad decisions, finding right strategies and detecting opportunities.
2. Gain competitive advantage (track competitors, discovering opportunities before competition)
3. Adapt to changing environment (cool hunting).
4. Maintenance and growth of business
5.Internal operations and cooperation, goals

More benefits of research for strat comm

1. Helps manager understand audience
2. Helps keep top-level management in touch with stakeholders
3. Help confirm existence and breadth of problems
4. Guide strategy appropriately and efficiently
5. Help prevent unintended or otherwise unanticipated effects (ensure that audiences will perceive messages in the way you intend)
6. Can provide basis for measures of accountability (baseline measures as compared to results)

Key Points of Research

-Connection between objectives and strategies
-Research is goal-oriented and objectives should state those goals
-How you define something influences how you measure it

Formative Research

Guides campaign creation, evaluation research that focuses on the planning, development, and implementation of a program.

Program Research

Guides implementation to ensure intended effects.

Summative (evaluative) Research

Evaluates success based on achievement of objectives

Basic Research

Research carried out to increase understanding of fundamental principles of a theory or topic rather than research that is designed to be applied to practical pursuits; conducted to expand the boundaries of knowledge. "Pure" research.
*Lab-based, Knowledge driven, experimental, analytic, nomothetic (giving or establishing laws)

Applied Research

Systematic inquiring accessing and using some part of the research community's (the ad agency's) accumulated theories, knowledge, methods, and techniques for a specific patient-student-or client-driven purpose; in industry settings, it is often proprietary.
*Problem-driven, Field-based, correlational (can't say that a causes b but that a and b relate), Synthetic (brings things together and looks at interconnectedness), Idiographic (pertaining to or involving the study of individual cases or events).

Qualitative Research

-Inductive (specific to broad)
-Researcher as data gathering instrument
-Data output in words or pictures
-Depth and richness
-Answers the "why?"
-"Subjective"

Quantitative Research

-Deductive (broad to specific)
-Use of tools to collect numerical data
-Data output in numbers and statistics
-Generalizability
-Answers the "what?"
-"objective"

The 4-Step Process of PR

PREA. Planning, Research, Evaluation, Action. (Research occurs through out all steps)

Communication Audits

Often a survey of company's key audiences via telephone. Internal Communication Audit- how well are we communicating with our employees? Audits of stockholders, community, the media, etc...

Gap Studies

How different individuals view an organization.

Goals of Research

1. To define a problem 2. Define and understand stakeholders 3. To select a channel 4. To test a message 5. To secure publicity 6. Image or reputation studies 6. To analyze coverage

Steps in the research plan

1. analyze the situation and define the problem
2. conduct informal, exploratory research
3. establish objectives 4. determine methods and conduct primary research (qualitative or quantitative) 5. data analysis and interpretation
action steps

Measuring Success in Research

1. Level 1: Outputs (immediate results like number of media impressions or placements)
2. Level 2: Outtakes and outgrowths (whether the stakeholders received, paid attention to, understood, retained messages
3. Level 3: Outcomes (impact, changes in opinion, attitude, behavior)

Research underlies advertising (is the basis of ads)...

-Source Credibility
-Concept Testing
-Media Trust
-Media Reliability

Account Planning

Part creative strategists, part researchers. Mission: to find the customer insights through the emotional landscape of motivations, fears, symbols, beliefs, myths, prejudices and desires.

Primary vs Secondary

Primary- you must research
Secondary- data has already been collected

Things to consider when using secondary research

-Is the source trustworthy?
-Who/what is the source? Why did they conduct the research? What is the methodology?
-Is it timely? Or is it obsolete?
-Is it relevant? Does it answer the question at hand?

Benefits of Secondary Research

-Cost efficient
-Easy/comparatively fast
-Can provide foundation for problem formulation or help define parameters of research

Types of secondary research

-Syndicated research
-Published research
-Articles
-Government
-User-generated media

Grounded theory

Explains events or phenomena in terms of those involved. Grounded in the details, evidence and examples. Ex: Interviewers can talk back, clarify and explain their points.

Sensitized Concept

Concept sensitive to data that helps explain relationships found in data. Point of departure from which to study data.

Operationalize

Defining how it is being used within the context.

Qualitative methods

-In-depth, open-ended interviews and focus groups
-Observation and ethnography
-Documentation
-Projective Techniques

Foundation of qualitative research

-Flexible: Allows for adjustments in design
-Iterative: Inform and evolve- stops when new insights stop
-Continiuous- redesign questioning in response to new lines of inquiry

Types of Qualitative Interviews

-Structured
-Semi-Structured
-Unstructured

Selecting Participants

-Selection of participants should match how you defined subject of research
-3 Requirements: Knowledge of cultural arena/situation being studied, willingness to talk and represent a range of points of view

Structuring Qualitative Interview

Design for depth, detail, vividness and nuance (subtle details like metaphors). Structure with main questions, probe questions (clarifying) and follow-up questions.

Probing Questions

Shows you are listening. Things like "tell me more...".

Emic Words

Words with a particular meaning within the context of a particular group.

Characteristics of Qualitative Interviewing

Natural settings, duration (typically 90 min), participants POV

Purpose of Focus Group

To explore or understand trends, not to generalize to larger population. Developed in recognition that many consumer decisions are made in social context.

Planning a Focus Group

-Determine the purpose
-Determine the target audience
-Determining how many to conduct
-Timing
-Selecting the moderator
-Choosing the site
-Writing the guide

Focus Group Participants

-Give an incentive (this can be bad because some people will lie to get incentive)
-Always follow up with individual
-Always recruit more than you think you need

Types of Focus Group Participants

-Random: might strive for this
-Volunteer: generally get this
-Known groups: drawn from a specific, predetermined set of people

Conducting a Focus Group

-Ice Breaker
-Listening and securing input from all participants
-Handling Respondents (active person, shy person, know-it-all, over-talker, obnoxious person)
-Handling reimbursement

Advantages of Focus Groups

-Cost effective/time effective
-Quality of Data: participants can provide checks and balances for each other and weed out false/extreme views
-People enjoy them
-Similarity of diversity of views can be insightful and quickly assessed
-Great for exploring and detecting
-Moderator can probe and request additional info
-Widely accepted

Disadvantages of Focus Groups

-Group setting can restrict number of questions that can be asked
-Available response time for any particular individual is restrained
-Requires skilled moderator
-Tend to work best when participants are strangers
-Not conducive for controversial or personal issues
-Beneficial for identifying major themes, but not as good at offering micro-analysis of subtle differences
-Unlike most qualitative methods, tend to take place outside of natural setting where social interactions normally occur.
-Not generalizable

Ethnographic Research

Primary method of anthropology and earliest distinct tradition of qualitative inquiry.

Applied Ethnography

A more contemporary use. Taking ethnography and using it to understand other cultures.

Ethnography

The study of people in their "native environment". Cultural interpretation. Begins with a topic, issue or problem of interest.

Etic

Outside looking in; involves interpretation.

Emic

On the inside, from within the culture; involves investigating how participants understand (think and feel about) their world.

Principles of Ethnographic Research

-Naturalism:trying to understand people in natural environments.
-Understanding
-Discovery- be open to discovery...things you didn't plan for

Market-Oriented Ethnography

Refers to an ethnographic focus on the behavior of people constituting a market for a product or service.

Date Gathering in Ethnography

-Observation (onlooker)
-Participant Observation (experiencing as an insider)
-Panel Studies
-Netnographies
-Video Ethnography

Netnography

Ethnography adapted to research online communities.

Discrepancy between emic and etic data

Are there differences between what people say, how they interpret their behavior and what researcher observes...

Overgeneralizations

Verbal accounts that understate reality ("we ALWAYS...").

Glosses

Metaphors depicting events or descriptions of action.

Claims of idiosyncracy

?

Advantages of Ethnography

-Can yield important consumer insights not provided in other methods
-Provides information on how things happen and how people act in their natural environment
-Flexible

Disadvantages of Ethnography

-Can be time-consuming and costly
-Can be difficult to gain access and trust
-Does not always yield the kind of insights a research might be seeking
-Cannot claim generalizability, reliability

Panel Studies

Recruiting a group of people and tracking them over time using a variety of techniques.
-useful when launching a new product
-lasts 2-3 weeks

Consumer Deprivation Studies

In order to help people realize how important something is to them you can have them go without that something for a period of time

Coolhunting

Form of ethnography that seeks out cool people to discover cool things.

Netnography

Ethnography adapted for online environments

Projective Techniques

Psychological approaches using stimuli that allow participants to project their subjective or deep-seated beliefs onto other people or objects. The general idea is that unconscious desires and feelings can be explored by presenting a participant with a stimulus in an unthreatening situation so the participant is free to interpret and respond to the stimulus.

Bracketing

Becoming aware of your preconceived notions of consumers so that you can see how your assumptions may impact your ability to hear consumers.

Two Approaches to Analyzing Projective Data

-Qualitative
-Quantitative

Triangulation

The application and combination of several evaluation methodologies to gain a different (and full) perspective of an issue or phenomenon.

Types of Projective Techniques

-Word Association Test
-Sentence Completion Test
-Choice Ordering: why certain things are more important than other qualities
-Cartoon Test: character in cartoon says ????
-Construction: Make up story or picture from a stimulus concept
-Expressive: Respondent is asked to describe what is happening when shown picture with little detail.

ZMET

Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique
-Draws out people's buried thoughts and feelings about brands by getting people to think in metaphors.

TAT

Thematic Apperception Test
-Appropriate for areas such as copy-testing (words, visuals, colors); gaining insight into qualities associated with different products and the people who use them; and exploring attitudes towards products, brands, images of institutions or symbols
-Participants are asked to assume the role of one of the portrayed people and to construct a story about what the person in the picture is thinking, saying or doing

Limitations of Direct Questioning

-People are not always conscious of their underlying motivations
-People tell you what they think you want to hear
-People are sometimes embarrassed to admit their real motivations
-Most people think of themselves as being completely rational in their decision making so they discount non-rational reasons for their behaviors.
-Some people fear how marketers might use their info

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