Anatomy and Pysiology

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chapter 1,2.3

nucleic acids

polymer of nucleotides..store and process information that regulate the synthsis of protiens and make up the genetic material in cells (CARBON, HYDROGEN OXYGEN,NITROGENS and PHOSHOUs

DNA

a Nucleic Acid consisting of a double chain of nucleotides that contain, sugar, adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine

RNA

a Nucleic Acid -single chain of nucleotides

Histone

proteins associated with DNA of nucleus, the DNA strand are wound around them

Plasma Membrane

a cell membrane

PH

indicated by concentration hydrogen ions it contains

Acid

releases hydrogen ions

Base

removes hydrogen ions from solution..

Buffers

coumpounds that stabilizes that PH of a solution by removing/releasing hydrogen ions

Carbohydrates

organic compound containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1

Lipids...

include fats, oils and waxes: most are water insolluable. fatty acids eicosanoids, glycerides, steroids and phosholipids and gycolipids.

Proteins

perform a variety of functions...they are a chain of amino acids proteins are polypetides containing over 100 amino acids...

Amino Acid

organic compound The key elements are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen

cations

ions with a positive charge

anions

ions with a negative charge

covalent bonds

chemical bond that shares electrons

ionic bond

molecular bond created by the attraction between ions of opposite charge .

Valence electrons

electrons of an atom that participate in the formation of chemical bonds

Neutrons

reside in the nucleus of an atom neutral charge

Protons

reside in the nucleus of an atom - positive charge

Electrons

orbits protons of nuclueus...NEGATIVE CARGE

Atoms

smallest unit of matter

Isotopes

atoms of the same element containing same # of protons but different # of neutrons (thus different atomic weight)

ELEMENT

pure substance ...atoms of only one kind

Serous membrane

Lines walls of internal cavities...

Mucus Membrane

Lines walls of digestive, respiratory, reproduction, and urinary..tracts

Homeostasis

body's ability to maintain stable environment

Organelles

intracellualr structures that performs a specific function or group of functions

Nucleus

cellualr organelle that contains DNA, RNA and proteins, in the CNA a mass of Grey Matter

Cytoskeleton

Network of microtubes and micorfilament in the cytoplasm

Golgi

organelle stacks of flattened membranes (cisternae) containing chambers.. function storage, alteration, and packagin gof secretory products and lysosomes (secreatory vesicles)

ER

network of membranous channels in the cytoplasm of a cell that function in intracelluar transport, sythesis storage pacaging ad secretion

Lysosome

intracelluar vesicle containing digestive enzymes/removes damaged organelles or pathogens

Mitocondria

double membrane with inner membrane folds (cristae) enclusing important metabolic enzymes.. function: to produce 95% of ATP required by the CELL

Rough ER

modifies and packages newly synthesized proteins

Smooth ER

synthesizes lipids and carbohydrates..

Centioles,

organelle composed of 9 microtubes (3 in each group) function in Mitosis or Meiosis by organizing the spindle apparatus

transcription

the encoding of genetic instructions of a strand of mRNA

translation

the process of peptide formation from the instructions carried by an mRNA strand

differenciation

characteristic cellular specialization

Mitosis

division of a single cell nucleus that produces 2 indentical daughter nuclei

Cytokinesis

cytoplasmic movement that separates 2 daughter cells at the completion of Mitosis..

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