TBHSWK yr11 chemistry Sci 1.5

78 terms by whytockke

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Terms and definitions for the Sci 1.5 Chemistry paper "Demonstrate an Understanding of Aspects of Acids and Bases

Acid

A substance which gives H+ ions in solution.

Base

A chemical which gives hydroxide ions in a reaction.

Alkali

A base which will dissolve in water eg. NaOH

Alkaline solution

A solution with a ph above 7

pH

A number scale which indicates the degree of acidity or alkalinity

Neutralise

To make the pH of a solution equal 7

Hydrogen ions

A positively charged hydrogen atom

Hydroxide ions

Ions formed from bases in a reaction (OH- )

Neutral

Solution which is neither acidic nor alkaline (ph = 7).

Evaporate

To remove liquid from a solution by changing it into a gas.

Compound

A substance where different types of atoms are chemically bonded in fixed amounts.

Salt

A compound formed when a metal or base reacts with an acid.

Hydrogen test

A flame makes this gas explode with a squeaky pop.

Oxygen test

Glowing splint placed in this gas relights.

Carbon dioxide test

Clear limewater turns milky when this gas is bubbled through it.

Limewater

Chemical used to test for carbon dioxide gas.

Metals

Elements that are shiny, malleable, ductile and good conductors of heat and electricity

Carbonates

Compounds which release carbon dioxide with acid.

Bicarbonates

Another name for Hydrogen carbonates.

Calcium Hydroxide

The chemical name for limewater

Soluble

Able to be dissolved

Acid rain

Rain that has a ph less than 7

Antacid

Chemical that helps neutralise an acid (eg stomach acid)

Neutralisation

Reaction between an acid and a base

Strong acid

Acids which give all of their hydrogen ions in a reaction

Weak acid

Acids which give only a few of their hydrogen ions in a reaction

Strong base

A base which gives lots of hydroxide ions in a reaction

Weak base

A base which gives only a few hydroxide ions in a reaction

Dilute

A small amount of chemical dissolved in a given volume

Concentrated

A large amount of chemical dissolved in a given volume

Matter

Anything that has mass and occupies space

Element

Substance made up of one type of atom only

Mixture

Substance made from different elements or compounds that are not chemically joined

Compound

Substance made of two or more elements joined together chemically in fixed amounts

Atom

Very small particles which make up all matter

Nucleus

Central part of an atom made up of protons and neutrons.

Proton

Positively charged subatomic particle

Electron

Very small, negatively charged subatomic particles

Neutron

Uncharged subatomic particles

Neutral atom

An atom with equal numbers of protons and electrons

Atomic number

Number of protons in an atom

Mass number

Number of protons and neutrons in an atom

Electron shell

Space that electrons with equal energy occupy

Valence electrons

Electrons in the outer shell of an atom

Periodic table

Chart with elements arranged in periods and groups

Group

A column of the periodic table

Period

A row of the periodic table

Isotope

Atoms of the same element with a different mass number due to different numbers of neutrons

Ion

An atom or group of atoms that has lost or gained electrons

Cation

Positively charged ion (because it has lost electrons)

Anion

Negatively charged ion (because it has gained electrons)

Molecular formula

Shows the number and type of atoms in a formula

Bond

The attractive force which holds particles in a substance together

Ionic bond

Bond formed by attractions of positive cation to negative anion

Covalent bond

Bond in which atoms share electrons equally to get a full shell

Chemical reaction

What occurs when new chemical substances are formed

Reactants

The starting substances in a reaction

Products

The new substances formed in a reaction

Balanced equation

Writing a reaction using the formulae of chemicals

Molecule

A group of atoms covalently joined together

Ionic compound

Compound made up of positive and negative ions

Molecular compound

Compound made up of atoms joined covalently together

Reaction rate

How fast a chemical reaction occurs

Collision theory

Explains that a reaction will only occur if the reactants collide with enough energy to break existing bonds

Frequency of collisions

The number of collisions by reactants

Effectiveness of collisions

The right alignment and force of collisions between reactants

Concentration

Amount (in moles per Litre) of a substance

mol L-1

Moles per Litre - unit of concentration

Temperature

Average kinetic energy of substances

0C

Unit of temperature

Surface area

Area of the particles exposed for collisions

Catalyst

Substance which speeds up a reaction without being used up

Enzyme

A biological catalyst

Industrial catalyst

Catalysts which speed up industrial processes to make them more efficient and economical

Activation energy (EA)

The minimum amount of energy needed to start a reaction

Exothermic reaction

Chemical reaction which gives out energy

Endothermic reaction

Chemical reaction which takes in energy

Orientation of reactants

The way the reactants are in the right alignment or position before colliding

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