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genetics

the study of heredity

hybrid

offspring with genetically different parents

genes

sections of DNA found on the chromosome

genotype

description of an individuals particular combination of alleles (genetic makeup- can not see with eyes)

homozygous

organisms that have 2 same factors for a trait

dominant allele

allele that expresses its phenotypic affect (shows physically)

principle of segregation

describes how inheritance of traits are passed

punnett square

table that predicts the likelihood/probability that a trait will show up in an offspring

polygenic trait

a trait controlled by 2 or more genes

codominance

mixture of traits (2 alleles show like a zebra)

sex-linked traits

traits linked by their sex chromosomes

Gregor Mendel

austrian monk who was first to describe how traits were passed

purebred

offspring with genetically same parents (HOMOZYGOUS)

alleles

alternate form of a gene that determines characteristics

phenotype

individuals appearance (determined by dominant allele)

heterozygous

organisms with 2 different factors for a trait (Tt)

recessive allele

an allele who's phenotype traits are not expressed

principle of independent assortment

an allele pair separate independently during the formation of gametes

test cross

crossing of an organism with an unknown genotype with a recessive

incomplete dominance

mixed (red flowers+ white flowers= pink flowers)

multiple alleles

presence of 2 or more allels for a genetic trait

autosomal traits

traits carried on all other chromosomes besides sex chromosomes

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